Wednesday, June 30, 2010


Top photo: Skulls pic taken by Adam Carr in 2005, posted on British Wikipedia. These Khmer Rouge victims died between 1975-1979 in Cambodia. Certainly, the Khmer Rouge was a full-blown regime of genocide AND terrorism for Asia in the late 20th Century. I can't help thinking people were not expecting to see this in the 1970s. We in the West were still getting used to life without Nazis.

Second photo: In this incredible find from Wikipedia, image shows Chinese Communist leader Mao, at right, greeting Che Guevara, at left, in Beijing in 1960. Asian man in background unidentified. The photo is at risk of editorial deletion at the still-standing request of the Aug. 2009 Cuban government.

The photo should strike you as somehow false, though, because it was more propaganda than anything else. In this regard, one needs to be a little careful in studies of terrorism or understandings of authoritarian regimes.

Guevara today is not considered a classic terrorist by today's academics, but he enthusiastically favored rebel actions and groups in his travels and through other means. Mao, in a far different corner of the globe, was routinely characterized by historians and Asian neighbors as a dictator, a deadly nightmare for much of rural China.

There are mixed feelings by commentators around the globe, though, on both men shown above. It's certainly difficult to find academic agreement in the affected regions.(Terrorism has grown increasingly propagandist by 2010, incidentally.)

In the next post, I get into the last available Mideast lectures of 1990, fractured then as they remain today. Arafat was still in Jerusalem in 1990, of course.

Lurene's email in 2014:
Parting note: This post has a variety of lecture, reading notes. While most are today available through research, I found it a bit difficult to find much information on South American terrorists of the 1960s on the internet in 2010. Especially the Brazillian terrorists cited in these 1990 notes below:


MAY 21, 1990

New left, continued…

Identification with Mao, Marx, Che Guevarra. Huge Psychodrama.

In 67, after 6-day war, the war was won. Everything was [?] @ right and wrong. “It took me a year to figure out what was going on.” - prof on his time as a grad student in the U.S.

1964 – Black Ghettos erupted. Violence bred violence and led eventually to terrorism. The V. war itself as played on television, and the protests emerged in this atmosphere.

Spring of 1968, the peak of Violence. Highest point of the Anti-War movement.

The Weathermen – leading figure was Dohrm. Mark Rudd second. Jewish background.

May 1970, U.S. invaded Cambodia. Intensified protests. Kent State, 4 students shot. In the South, black students killed. N.Y. police station, Army research center bombed by Weathermen. Freed Timothy Leary, from a California prison. He joined Eldridge Cleaver in Algeria. 1974 – PRARIE FIRE – book that admitted to weaknesses in Weathermen movement, after a low-profile of 3 years or so.


Symbionese Liberation Army – founded in California, 1974. Continuation of Black Panthers, mixed membership. (Actually started in Vacaville prison, Berkeley students visiting Black inmates. Patty Hearst kidnapping.

Shows that becoming a terrorist is a social process. New American left terrorists from primarily middle class background. In the group, these people developed “groupthink” and emotional dependency.#

MAY 31, 1990

Che Guevara – not involved in terrorism. In 1965, he disappeared from public. Went to the Congo where there was civil war.

Tried to apply his revolutionary theory. Decided to go to Bolivia, start Guerrilla movement. Was caught, executed. Castro martyred him, but Bolivians refused to allow body back to Cuba.

His major contribution was symbolic. Died young. Idealistic. Believed in small movements. Intellectual. A real revolutionar.

Mao Ze Dong (sp?) – wrote theories. Guevara didn’t add a lot.

Guevara, “2,3, many Vietnams.” Only way to bring down America, to make a forced over-extension.

Don’t have to wait for all the conditions of a revolution to be present. Most important battles in the countryside – Guerrilla Warfare. Not terrorism. He thought it would damage the cause of the revolution. Build an Army in the countryside. 30-50 skilled revolutionaries could begin the whole thing.

Regis Debray – French idol of young 60s revolutionaries. Son of a very conservative family. Studied philosophy. Studied in Cuba. Gave new expression to Basic Guevara idea. Advocated total class war.

FOCO – focus in English. Debray said the revolutions must start at the focal point. Must establish a FOCO. Then expand the FOCO, and fighting under all conditions. Last, political and military attack on existing regime. No need to consult with anyone, just take decision and go.

Guevara was not very impressed with Debray. Debray eventually imprisoned, but when released renounced terrorism by start of 70s. Today in Mitterrand Govt.

Urban Guerrillas – Big ideas in 70s.

Tapamaros – Uruguay based, conducted terror operations.

Carlos Marighella – Brazillian revolutionary. Not as young as Che. Helped create new myths, models. Wrote the “Mini Manuel of the Urban Guerrilla”. Didn’t start these activities until much later in life. Was in communist party.

ALN – Action for National Liberation
VPR – ?

August, 1968: Marighella published study of Brazillian movement. Turned into a manifesto. Charles Gundrick kidnapped, who was an American diplomat.

Grand strategy of Urban Guerrilla was to bring government to a terrorist level. According to this theory, no government can afford to have terrorism at home. A repressive regime will be PRODUCED, Marighella said.

Instead, military Juntas held continual take-overs.

MAY 31, 1990

MAY 31, 1990


The Cold War as a centripetal force: directing nation-states towards international cooperation

NATO -- 1951 ANZUS – 1951
SEATO – 1954 OAS – 1948

The impact of the Cold War on Middle East Alliance Formations, the Baghdad Pact, 1955.

The Cold War as a centrifugal force? Why did France leave NATO and develop a separate national defense programme?

Read 71 – 74 79 – 92

Evidence of Syrian-Iranian Cooperation in Iran/Iraq War, or….

Winter 1989
By Laurie A. Mylroie

“The failure to solve the Palestinian problem undermines the position of Iraq’s allies Egypt and Jordan, while promoting the interests of its foes, particularly Syria, Iran’s most important Arab Ally.”

• Fall of 1987 – Sept. – Shift in Israeli support of Iran began. Foreign Minister Shimon Perez called for “a durable ceasefire in the Persian Gulf.”
• A month later, the U.S. made complaints to Israel’s govt. about possible arms sales to Iran.
• Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin was in favor of arms to Iran. (A short time later following the Iran-Contra affair in the U.S. in November of 1986)
• Israeli Defense Ministry then reissued orders banning sales of spare parts for anti-aircraft missiles and airplanes to Iran.
• Israel’s back-off from Iran may have been inspired then by both U.S. pressure and domestic pressure. Also, Iraq may have been moderating in stance toward Israel, a chance Israel did not want to pass up.
• Iraq possessed the most experienced Arab air force, as well. Iran couldn’t even get spare parts after the fall of the Shah, who kept American Equipment (?).
• Iran supported Hizballah in Lebanon with some 5 million a month. Wants to liberate Jerusalem. Targeted Lebanese Jews, Israeli Defense Forces around the Security Zone, which severed Syrian interests.
• Eventually, Israel came to have reservations about kindling the anger of Iraq. Fear of an “Eastern front”
• Iran may have also preferred ties with Syria because of Israeli history of support of Shaw. Israeli contempt for Islamic fundamentalism.
• Iran cooperation with Syria irritates the Syrian-Iraqui rivalry, which works to the benefit of both Iran (then) and Syria.

• Iran shut out all of her regional neighbors through the policy of exporting the revolution, except Syria.

R.K. Ramazan, THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL, Spring ’89, Iran’s Foreign Policy: Contending Orientations

JUNE 4, 1990

From handbook, 35-43, 54-93, 108-9, pg 116 UNRWA, UNO, Sec Council, IMF, GATT, Comecon, EEC, Statute of Europe (Time span, membership, policy, goals)

? Fukuyama article → Question – Why doesn’t Fukuyama address Racism more completely and why doesn’t he ask what transformations may take place when “liberal democracy” is the universal idea? Totalitarianism again?

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