Wednesday, June 30, 2010


Photo by Lurene, Egypt in 1990

MARCH 1990

Lurene's email in 2014:

APRIL 2, 1990

(See prof in 309 after class on Wednesday
Papers due 6 of June. Typed 15 double-spaced pages.)

Two-year reign of Faisal in Syria. How important was the period of Faisal?

Represented a political duality because he was a Hashemite. First legitimate Arab nationalist leader.

Arabization under Faisal – Turkish to Arabic
Mandate was a new innovation.

Supposed to start nations toward independence. No real teeth for enforcement. Syria had a “direct” mandatory – mid to high level posts. French.

Came on heels of Arab nationalist movement.

First national struggle 1925 in Syria. Druze. National revolt against French.

Druze not Muslims. 11th Century separation from Islam. Tradition of living in remote areas. Pay less taxes and better for wars. Hide their feelings if it will protect them, but rebelled against French in 1925.

Mashaikh – leaders of Druze. Angered with French. French did not realize legitimacy of the Mashaikh. Used Druze to serve French military system. Also, Sultan of al-Atrash (supreme leader of the Druze) was insulted, his home invaded.

APRIL 4, 1990

Under French, Lebanon, Syria divided, dismembered. Old divide and rule trick.

1) Allepo
2) Damascus
3) Jabel Druze
4) Lebanon
5) Alawite

Latikiya capital of Alawite territory
Jazira – East of Euphrates in Syria

French gave druze a degree of independence, but there was a collaborative level

1925 – Druze rebellion. Added with other rebellions, it turned into a full-blown hostility against French.

Question: What was the last straw for the Syrians regarding French rule?

Added territories, economic structure changed because of border adjustments, French favoritism toward Christians, French dumped products on Syrians, contributing to inflation and glut. Composed forces of Druze and Alawites, but not muslims.

Most of the Army at time busy in Morocco, so existing force in Syria was very brutal.

In shadows, Amir Abdullah, British. British may have helped support the revolt with Abdullah. Main centers of fighting were secluded areas, another reason why it lasted for two years. 1925 contributed to the identity of Druze, Alawites as “Syrians”. Hence another step toward Syrian nationalism.

Ghuta Valley of Damascus – where very poor lived. They joined.

Jizira – Bedoins joined, who lost income for caravans. Started attacking military convoys.

Everyone had very different interests. In 1936, French added Druze area back to main Syria.

In Alawite state, French in 1936 reattached (Latakia) to Syria. 1939 separated. 1942 reattached.

Q – Why is the small natural port in South Turkey – Alexandretta – so important?

Good strategic natural port. Dispute on who majority was – Turk or Arab. Turkey in 1920, 1921 fighting for its existence.

In 1921, given to French by Turks for special favors for local population.

In 1935, Syrian said they wanted the Hatai returned. Turks wanted an independent state there.

League said “compromise with independent state”. State bi-national. The national Assembly in 1939 accepted annexation from Turkey. French acknowledged this. But this was a major violation of the mandatory. But on the eve of the war, a non-issue.

1922, French nominate first Syrian Cabinet. Seen as collaborators by nationalists. Faisal, to them, represented legitimacy.

After 1927, Dr. abd al Rahman Shahbandar and Sultan al atrash. New national leadership. Two new political parties: Istiklal (independence, no separate Syria, supporters of Faisal). Sha’b (for fighting the French only in Syria, young, active, less pan-Arab)

These two parties seen as collaborators

Still be nationalists, French wanted a constitution that recognized Syria, but also the mandate. And that’s what they did in 1930 (article 116)

1932, Iraqui independence from British

1932-33, Egyptians negotiate with British for independence.

Syrian (1933-34) begin negotiations with French. Since France was about to enter war, it was too expensive to support Syria.

French politics, in 3rd republic, did not favor colonies.

National Front Govt signed with Syria in Nov of 1936. Effective Nov. 1939, modeled after Irqui model. French kept forces there. Did not include Lebanon.

New Syrian Parliament overwhelming nationalist. But disappointed in 37, 38 when French hesitated to ratify agreement. In 1938, agreement blew off by French. WWII dominant factor.

Two reactions by Syrians: Anti-French, anti-Syrian negotiators. In 1939, the political system in upheaval. Now, movement against both.

Naturally, British and French very unpopular. So they were pro-German, pro-Nazi.

French took over Syria again.

May 1990, Germans in Turkey. High Commissioner in Syria (French) declared loyalty to pro-Nazi Vichy Govt. in France.

June of ’41, Syria liberated by Free French Forces. (Moshe Dyan lost his eye in that battle).

Asad – Maoz, “Sphynx”
Seale, Patrick
Ex: Asad’s Foreign Policy

APRIL 5, 1990
1. Last week’s assi. Reading 36,39
2. Deutscher pg. 39; CHRR 35-38

[Why the rejection of nationalism after World War II]

Simulation Game: The Decision Making Process:

Q: Can Jews and Arab-Palestinians find a way to share the land

1) The players: Jews in Israel, USA; Palestinians in West Bank, East Jerusalem, deportees; U.S. Administration – Baker
2) Proposed 1947 Plan of Partition: Sadat formula, pg 137 in book

Distinctive Characteristics of Palestinians

1) Collective will, expresses self-definition
2) Refugee national assimilation by Jordan (1950)
3) Common Sense of Destiny (perceive ’48 war as catastrophe, will to return)
4) Common folklore, (Abu Amar – Yassir Arafat) Distinctive of Jews

Distinctive Characteristics of Jews

1) Pursuit of peace – Jewish philosophy
2) Needs peace in a practical way
3) Exodus 23:9 Thou shalt not oppress the stranger
4) Jerimiah 22:4 Do not violence to the stranger


Q: What political factors work in favor of Sadat’s plan.
Q: Could both parties accept plan? American Jews, administration, holders of balance.

In 1979, Sadat overcame basic Islamic perceptions: Dar el Islam, idea of jihad, Khartoum conference of 1967 (no recognition, no peace, no negotiation).

Whose Diplomacy would be appropriate today?

Moses – Threats, Brinkmanship
Joshua – 100 years war
Aaron – Plebiscite, follower of public opinion

• assignment option instead of nationalism assignment.


#6 – PG 62-64

I. Germany invades Poland Sept. 1, 1939

• Sept. 3, England, France declare war on Germany
• Iraq, Egypt tied to Britain by treaty – territorial use in war
• Saudis: No agreement but Britain’s fleet controlled Red Sea, Persian Gulf. Britain also had air bases in Iraq, Egypt, Arden.

II. Arab states with Britain, but not very enthusiastically.
III. France stationed army in Syria and Lebanon under Gen. Weygand

• Britain had troops in Palestine, Egypt
• Iraq: had oil, next to Iranian oil fields, route via Persian Gulf to Palestine overland – main line in war from India to Egypt and Turkey.
• October ’39, Britain, France treaty with Turks for allied war effort if needed
• Oil outlets in pipeline from Iraq were in Haifa and Tripoli’s in Syria. Haifa had a refinery
• Need for large force in Mid-East motivated by fear of Italian invasion from Libya, internal Arab disorders

IV. British feared German attack of Balkans, so mid-East gained more importance
V. French wanted to create more fronts to lure Germans from Western front, esp. Gen. Gamelin. Weygand in the levant wanted Balkan Front. But the Soviet-Finnish War made mid-east more practical
VI. France and England planned hostile measures against Russia from Turkey. Attempted to revive 1937 Saad – Abad Treaty between Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq. Troops, most French in area, but Allied commanders rejected all action in the Balkans.

Syria and Lebanon (Levant)

• High Commissioner Puaux suspends Syrian constitution before war broke.
• Suspends Lebanese Constitution on Sept. 21, concentrates power in Lebanese cabinet and Sec. of State Bayhum and his French advisors
• Communists, pro-fascists (Syrian National Party) outlawed
• German-financed Arab-Nationalist Club in Damascus closed.
• Communist, nationalist leaders imprisoned.
• The main nationalists (National Bloc) and Dr. Shahbandar’s groups activities “limited.”
• loyalty to France out of fear.
• Distrust of Allies following cession of Alexandretta to Turkey in 1936-1939.
• In previous world war, hunger, terror, epidemics. Fear of war

[pg 173-192 Germany and the Syrian Campaign, continued on…]

APRIL 23, 1990

Right Wing Terrorism –

1) Revolutionary Terrorism
2) The aggrieved Right, reaction to left not radical or ideological
3) Vigilante Terrorism – Restoring law and order. Not revolutionaries. See themselves as fulfilling law/governmental function
4) Racist Right – feel threatened by certain groups

Misperception that terrorism is from left – because rightists avoid the media.

Fascists are not popular since the war. The left, in general, feels guilt.

Rightists espouse “survival of the fittest” and don’t write books to explain their ideologies.

Leftists often behave the same, but speak the language of the left.

Scholars, for many years, rejected Fascism as not worth studying. Not a “doctrine”, like Marx wrote, but had an intellectual, cultural viewpoint.

• Construction of a new civilization
• Creative use of violence
• Dynamism
• Anti-Boug. Capitalism
• Anti-democracy, parliamentary
• Pro-Avante-Garde
• Total totalitarian system, not seen as negative then. Penetrates all spheres of individual life

Late 1800s, Socialists taking root in Europe. They said war was the business of the capitalists, for the poor to fight. Socialists were sure the poor workers would not fight. Thought they were class-conscious first, before nationalistic.

In 1914, August, WWI broke. Workers were loyal to respective countries. Major slap to Socialist theory. Philosophical disaster. Mussolini, in fact, turned from Socialism. Said the idea of the Nation was more important.

1914 created the social, political climate for fascism to grow.

Italian political sociology was developing at turn of century:

Micnels, Mosca, Poreto – studied 1900 democracy

Italians said, even in democracy, few get to top. Few remain at top. Pure democracy non-existent. Elites still control everything, and this is the natural order of things. Developed a normative theory. “Why talk about democracy?”

Also took Darwin’s theories and said only the fittest “ought to survive.”

Politics, policies best left to intuition. The leader (NAZI theory) should be a composite of the nation.

Tempista – person with perfect timing. Only the genius knows the moment – has the intuition.

Politics is the “superior activity” of LEADERS, fascists said. Vertical concept of politics – evolves from above. Does not flow from society. Intertwined with struggle and conflict.

MEANS in fascist thinking always justify ENDS. Violence inseparable from politics.

1) Ideological enemies of fascists suffered terrorism – like leftists
2) Race – directed terrorism. Usually applied against “inferior” groups. Conducted selectively. (leftist terrorism usually against the regime)
3) Considered terrorism proper method after a coup. Usually eliminate their enemies. Sponsored-terrorism by the new state, to keep people under constant terror. Use of terrorism against other regimes.


Had practical, historical roots. Called “Terrorism is practice”.

In Europe at that time, anarchy, chaos result of collapse of political system.

Infrastructure for democracy in Germany was not there. Communism was feared. Economic crisis. Total insecurity which helped foster morality crisis. Fricoor – small armies of several commanders, unemployed, who never accepted defeat. “Stab in the back” myth. So Weimar Republic started out on bad leg.

This created a climate of political violence all around. Communists, Armies, fascists, street violence. Coup idea popular.

S.A. – Storm Troopers
S.S. – Security Guards

Typical, classical terror organizations. S.A. made up of thugs from the tri-coor to disturb socialists and other enemies. Known as the brown-shirts. Private Army of impoverished people. Lived in a semi-military fashion. Roehm was the commander. Roehm member of Hitler’s party.

Hitler couldn’t trust the S.A. – too oriented toward socialism and Hitler NEEDED the rich.

So in 1925, he created the S.S., as a personal guard of the leader. Had each to swear allegiance to Hitler. Himmler in command. Given special tasks. Very carefully selected – egotistic and racist. Insisted on blind obedience. Socially, they came from upper-classes. Many were low-ranking officers of the Kaiser army. Ready to commit every act. So when in 1933 Hitler took power, he ordered S.A. eliminated, with Roehm. Afterwards, S.S. people entrusted with regulation of country and the military. With the Gestapo, the S.S. were in charge of internal state terrorism.

Distinction between terrorism and genocide.

 Terrorism kills few, terrifies many. Means of control.
 Genocide does not “send messages”. Simply kills people; fear and political meaning not important. Cambodia, Germany. Paranoia motivated.#

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