Wednesday, June 30, 2010


Photo by Lloyd Francis of Henry Kissinger in San Francisco, 1987. No discussion of the history of Mideast terrorism can get far without mention of Henry Kissinger, who served as Secretary of State in the Nixon and Ford administrations. His still-controversial opinions can be researched in various venues, but especially on his website at

Unpublished, academic class notes, “Hebrew University Notes March 1990-June 1990 Jerusalem”, from various classes I took as a visiting student at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. (Section One, Dec. 26, 2009 post.)

Lurene's email in 2016:
(360) 656-6838 desk
(360)920-2896 cell

I was there as a one-year student during the 1989-1990 academic year, on loan from San Francisco State University’s International Program, as it was titled. I had to win a spot with grades and recommendations from Cal State University system. The first Intifadah raged on for the entire year I studied there. I was much more left-wing in those days, politically naïve, and too sure of my own opinions.

The Hebrew University, or “Ooniversitah Eevreet” as it is pronounced in Hebrew, is situated on Mt. Scopus in Jerusalem.

It was founded by several historical figures: scientist Albert Einstein, Psychologist/Dr. Sigmund Freud, philosopher Martin Buber, and the first Israeli President Chaim Weizmann.

I was there as a student, but am today angry with myself for losing/not saving more of my written work. It was, frankly, of only mediocre quality, if that even, but I still wish I had it. These notes, luckily, I found one day while digging around old papers in my closet.

These 1990 notes below are from Jerusalem only, not San Francisco. I still have books from those years in Israel with the text of original documents. For example, American President George Washington's words of welcome to the Hebrew Congregation of Newport, Rhode Island, in 1790.

Other work, both from the Hebrew University and from other colleges, remains lost. This means various notes from studies I did on 19th and 20th century Jewish history, anti-Semitism in Europe and elsewhere, the Hebrew language, the Holocaust, Nazis, history of fascism, a detailed history of Israel, the history of Mideast oil and its politics, terrorism, the history of Syria and the history of nationalism in Europe and the Mideast.

I studied Einstein in Jerusalem, but I'm pretty sure these readings and lectures were part of the Jewish history course. My college course focused only on Einstein's work was at San Francisco State.

I lost or neglected to save many less-exciting course notes as well, of course. I guess I lost most of this work in routine apartment moves between Berkeley and San Francisco, etc.

Outside this embarassing loss, I remember the Jerusalem campus as intellectually serious, but unpretentious and welcoming to all who were on it, whether they were scholars or not.

That atmospheric detail is an important note because I recall feeling a little intimidated during my first week on campus because of Mr. Einstein’s role in the founding of the school where these notes were taken:


Sec. One: Modern Revolutionary Terror:

No. A - Began mid-1800s – Russian Anarchists Nechaev, Bakunin, Kropofkin. Inspired by the Assassins. Before this, Islamic and Jewish religious groups. Sicarii, Zealots (against Rome).

No. B – K.K.K., The Sons of Liberty

Sec. Two – The Anarchist Tradition

No. A – Society full of latent hostility

No. B – Devised moral conventions

No. C – History replaces God as our final judge

No. D -- Atrocity frees/faces “convention” from soul and society.

Sec. Three – “the critical factor in generating reactions is the status of the assailants.” Govern. Suppress evidence, rebels publicize.

No. A – Credibility of terrorist groups over peaceful revolutionaries

No B – Terrorism drives victim population to frenzy, increase hatred.

No. C – The best situation for the terrorist may be an irresolute govt., torn between conflicting popular demands.

No. D – Compelling the strong to attack the weak

No. E – Terror as personal Therapy. Conflict.

No. F – Sadism, guilt-free terror exercises.


Governments have become a huge, squid-like form. Terrorism perhaps the only precise instrument visible to extremists. “Act-Up.” Not terrorist, but an example of publicity seeking tactics. – LKH #

Morality of Just Vengence

Theory of the lesser evil

Unavailability of access, Wil Konson, “political terrorism.”

# end March 14, 1990 terrorism class #

Hebrew March 14, 1990 class notes, but with actual handwritten Hebrew characters omitted:

Test - bohan
Hazot – this
All – kol
This – hazot
Vacation – hootsha
Twenty – One Hundred Numbers the same form, no feminine or masculine forms
16 – sheeshah essar
17 – sheva essar
12 – shnim essar
About or Approximately – bayerek
About as in “talking about…..” – al

# end March 14, 1990 Hebrew class lesson #

Syria class, March 14, 1990

What is the national psychology of Syria?

Drive for leadership in region and Arab world in Political development.

Dispute with Iraq ongoing, two rival civilizations, Mesopotamian, and Egyptians, was a single government under Omeya Dynasty, 7th to 13th century, competition between Baghdad, Cairo, Syria center, Mongols invaded Baghdad in 1215, since 1250. Syrians not able to be the capital of Muslim empire, al sham (Syria), Byzantia, Arabia border: al-sham. Byzantia main challenge to Moslem empire. Connections al-sham to your left. The sun of the North, maybe. Battle zone separating Islam from Dar al Harb, non-Islam. Syria’s obligation, traditional, to sprearhead the infidels. The enemy was Christian, and those areas were Dar al-Harb. From early period, Zealots in Syria.
Jund: military, administrative division in Syria. First, in 5 areas: Filistine (Israel), Ordan (Jordan), Damascus, Hims (North of Damascus), Qinnasria. Five provinces of Syria – which is how Assad defines Syria today. Mid-Seventh Century. Lebanon not part of this. Central control from Damascus. “Jund Junud”

Umayyad Period 661-750

Abbasid, 750-1258

In Abbasid, “Southern Syria” was Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Aleppo, the North Maghrib – North Africa/Eastern Syria. Included Cairo. Cairo, Baghdad always in competition over Syria. Damascus a prize. Muawyah – 661 – 750, Abbasid 750 – 1258, In Abbaside, Southern Syria, as it was known, was Israel, Jordan, and Lebanon. Jaleppo was the north.

Maghrib – Eastern Syria, which was actually North Africa. Included Cairo, Baghdad, which were two areas always in competition over Syria. Damascus was a prize. Muawyah – 661 in power – first Umayyad Caliph. He choose Syria as center of territory. He was married into the major tribes of Syria. First to unite Syria with Arabism and Islam. Named Caliph in Jerusalem first (religious), then Damascus (Arab center)

Caliph – Political, military, religious leader. In place of the prophet.

Until 661 Mecca was the Islamic Center. Jerusalem was in Syria. Syrians still see Jerusalem as their religious capital Umayyads built the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa.

Constantinople was constantly besieged by Syria because it was Christian. Every summer. Umayyads started falling though. Movement in Iraq.

Why was Damascus the capital?

Because it was ideally located, actually. But was moved for practical reasons – the empire was expanding. Antioch (northwest of Damascus) served as a capital when Umayyads attacked Byzantines. Moved eastward most of time. After 720s, Damascus only official capital, not practically.

In 725, people revolted against the Caliph. Started in Filistine [Philistine] and spread. Weakened the Umayyad Dynasty.

Economic, political frustration of people because of shifting economic base because of “capital” flight.

750 – Abbasids come to power. Still did not want Damascus as capital. Came to power with the head of the Persians – new converts. An Arab/Persian Rivalry. Iraq was more suited than Syria, the Persian Center (?). Islam a “missionary” religion. Persians were different, role was unique, played a “missionary” role.

Syrian-Iraqi Rivalry: Since 685, Umayyads killed Syrian Garrisons. People who resented Islam, its spread. Syrian Arabs came to dominate other Arabs.

New revolt when military centers of Syria shifted. Iraqis revolt. Syrian Arab Umayyads treated other Syrians preferentially.

Syrian army had tribal factions. Yamans from South Arabia, Qays from N. Arabia.

Heritage of factionalism in Syria. Tribes were very important to individual identity.

Military equipment started changing hands under Umayyad, contributing to the downfall of the Umayyad. Especially as they moved Eastward. Less control of army, no economic control. Capital moved. Abbasids had a natural opening. Umayyad period was unique because of the Syrian dominance in Arabia. Process of non-Arabs taking over.

# end March 14, 1990 notes #

March 15, 1990 Hebrew class notes:

Here – po
There – sham
Close to – kruval
Far from – rachoch may….
To help – la azor
There is a long line? – yesh toor aroke?
Short – ktsar
Limit – gvuul
To pay for – lay shalek
Party – miseebah
Fast – ma ar
Slow – le at
A lot – ha ravah
A little – katsat or may-oat
To smoke – le ashon
[unknown definition] – mitz oo yahn

# End Hebrew notes for March 15, 1990 #

# Start Terrorism class notes March 15, 1990. actual notes now write “Terrorism” in Hebrew, probably so I could spell the word as used in Jerusalem newspapers of day. #

What do modern terrorists wish to accomplish?

Distinction between political/social goals and personal goals. In insurgent terrorism (not state-sponsored), terrorism fights authority and instills fear in the establishment, shake confidence/publicity seeking also very important aspect sending a message, propagate/The anarchists in 1880’s doctrine of “propaganda by deed”. One bomb more effective than 100 leaflets.

In the modern era, terrorists successful at this. 1972 Munich games. Israeli athletes killed. 2nd question “what is it all about…” Symbiosis: Terrorism and the media. They love each other. Most terrorists may not achieve political power, but get their message across.

Drive the opponent into counter-terrorism: Destroy government image./French in Algeria in 1950s (The Battle of Algiers, movie) – French employed massive counter terrorism and in the long run the French lost to political pressures – PLO strategy of putting PLO bases in civilian centers – PLO argued Israel was equally terroristic

Destroy governments credibility among its citizens – mass insecurity in population – Red Brigades in Italy in 1970s created atmosphere of near-anarchy in Italy – Drug cartels in Columbia (distinction between individual terrorism, spot targets. Mass terrorism uses uninvolved civilians/Lechi in Israel went after Individual British.)

War by Proxy: important development in modern international relations; states use other terrorist organizations to accomplish ends – In 70s, substitute for potential nuclear war – one theory.

Individual goals of the terrorist – reconstruction of one’s dignity – response to a perceived humiliation – they want their grievance taken seriously. Terrorism is the weapon of the weak – terrorism is the only option for some, who would prefer conventional warfare.

France Fanon – Black psychiatrist, Algerian who belonged to liberation struggle – came up with “the wretched of the earth”, violence purifies – said the natives had been so humiliated that their self-respect had been destroyed by white men – violence will liberate psychologically – looked at terrorism s useful – leftist tradition of uneasiness with violence – Fanon “justified it” with writing – adopted by Black Panthers – from Martinique, he joined the Revolution in Algeria.

New recruits sent to violent initiation tasks to be “purified” – strengthen the individual – most terrorists are as sane as the general population. Initially, it was assumed they were pathological. Tried to study the “terrorist mindset”, but found nothing. Nothing clinically wrong with terrorists – it’s a creation of social, political circumstances – no real cyclical patterns.


History is full of events that qualify as terrorism. State terrorism, tyranny, most ubiquitous – Rulers who themselves do not respect the law – Instill fear in the people – Have to perpetuate this with more, more fear –

Doctrine of Tyrannicide; legitimacy of killing the Tyrant – Roman idea – Part of the education of the Roman Nobility was the “Tyranicide” doctrine – considered a virtuous act – Julius Caesar became a Tyrant and assassination was a legitimate form of resistance – With early Christianity, doctrine lost favor because of the strong criticism of violence –

Then, modern thinkers termed government as a “servant of the people”. – Tyranicide given some renewed legitimacy.


Conducted by religious believers, is justified by religious rationales – “Holy Terror” – One of the most important branches of Modern Terrorism – Two examples: Sicarii before destruction of 2nd temple, suicide of Massada. Assassins.

Modern Sicaricin in Israel (targets leftist symbols) comes from Sicarii. Josephus the historian wrote about the final days of Judea – wrote a little about the Sicarii –

Sicarii were in the “Zealots”. Zealots did not want to compromise with the Romans. Politically insane position because Judea was only a colony in Rome’s Empire – Jews wanted MORE freedom, they were already allowed certain freedoms – Since Judaism is more than religion – Relations with the Romans deteriorated. The Zealots were true believers. Concluded that God would help. Carried out terrorist acts on Romans to radicalize them, and move opinion of Jewish moderates – “Sica” – Weapon used to stab Romans.


On holidays, they would move about Jerusalem stabbing notables – created atmosphere of fear – eliminated moderate Jewish leaders – Sicariis became leaders in the struggle – when the Romans closed in on Jerusalem, Sicariis burned all the food stores, hoping for divine intervention – Jerusalem, Temple destroyed – In the end, Massada suicide – Seen now as negative influence on Jewish thought, the Ultra-Orthodox – created civil war among Jews, contributing to final destruction.

1984, Jewish underground discovered. They were preparing to blow up the Dome of the Rock to bring back the Messiah, a Sicarrii-like tactic.

Assassins – Operated North of Iran. For 200 years used terrorism as its major mode of operation. High priest wanted to clean up Islam. They never succeeded, but survived for 200 years. Marco Polo wrote about them. Hashishia – users of hash. To kill in the name of God. Fedayeen: “Men of sacrifice”. Brought down in 13th Century of Moguls. – end – NEXT TIME, FRENCH REVOL. TERRORISM

Nationalism and Internationalism
March 15, 1990
New Western European Identity

The balance of power from 1945 reveals two centers of gravity: US/USSR. There has been a shift in the power balance in the case of both superpowers, but its cause is different. ANS: focus on client states rather than patron states.

Client states gaining independence. Transforming status economically.

Common Market – EEC – 1957. Did not allow American entry.

Book: Gordon Craig: “The Germans”

Tornado/Leopard – German-made weapons

USSR: Intrinsic decline

USA: Losing power relative to Europe

Russian Price: requisitions of property; Gold Reserves taken; No credit; Quotas for Soviets in production, set price.

Negative role models: when a state serves as a model for what should not be done.

Tradition of national strife between nations in Europe. France – German rivalry.


1) Loyalty to the nation
2) National independence, freedom from influence of another nation or power
3) Emphisis; National interests, national security.

Homework: Look up definition of “Nation”

Russia claimed to liberate Eastern Europe #

DEFINITION OF NATION: A large community of people associated with a particular territory. Usually, single language, some political character and aspirations.

DEFINITION OF STATE: Organized political community with its apparatus of govt. #

I & N
March 19, 1990 lecture

“Internationalism” under Russia for Eastern Europe; a sour idea, sour experience. They prefer 1789 situation. Reactionary ideas, the nation-state. Reactionary: repeating history re-action. Going back to old idea of the nation. Language, religion, ethnicity, culture ties.

1789 – French Revolution. Liberty, but for the French. Attacked other nations’ nationalism. Tried to spread influence of France. Russian example. Germany too.

From 1800, grew to condemnation of different races, different nation-states. (Lord Acton)

Why Eastern Europe does not have history of democracy:

Nation State, a sovereign state with relatively homogeneous people.

Russian/American ? example vis a vis Palestinians: who are “the nation”

1) Territorial Unit
2) Cultural Unit
3) Political Unit

The right to vote, elect national leadership – CITIZENSHIP.

American example preceded European model. 1776-American – 1789 – France.

Other definitions:

1) A people of common origin, traditions, language, capable of constituting a nation-state – Rigid, “who belongs to the nation? – British dictionary


1) Open, public diplomacy
2) Freedom of Navigation in Seas
3) Free trade
4) Arms control
5) Self-determination (?) of colonial populations consent with them
6) Guarantees for Balkan states, Serbia, Russia
7) Ottoman empire; autonomous development
8) Independent Polish state
9) An association of nations to guarantee security


KOHN – The Idea of Nationalism

From back to front:

Sovereignty; relations, state to citizen; relations between states

Nationalism; sympathy with other nationals; distrust of foreigners, indifference

• International relations are guided by a lack of permanent common interests
• Feelings in International Relations are subject to swift change. Nationality as “the whole”.
• Enlightened rationalism; faith in the oneness of humanity, value of the individual
• “Nationality is a state of mind corresponding to a political fact,” or striving to.


Acton –

“Exile is the nursery of Nationality, as oppression is the school of liberalism”


Nation definitions, continued…

2) A community of people possessing a defined territory and Govt.
3) Historically developed community of people with a territory, economic life, culture and language in common. Fits U.S., not Europe….U.S. dictionary – Websters…all these definitions miss the psychological concept in the definition.

Homework: pgs 10-18 in workbook. Optional: Nations and Nationalism, 1-8, Gellner, Nationalism 62-92, Kedourie

MARCH 19, 1990

Mishmash – peaches
Ougat Mishmesh – peach cake or peach pie

Homework: write out budget for month, itemized, in Hebrew.

[Handwritten notes I took are left out for this 2010 version because of simple text/character difficulties. It would take long time to correctly duplicate for record here.]



• Poor were left out of the “balance of French Revolution
• Revolutionary coercion – Jocobinism
• 1792 armed coup
• Legis. Assembly was elected on the basis of property qualification. Monarchy out. Feudal ties or dues abolished?
• Jacobins, for the welfare of the masses. Political, economic dictatorship enrages, anarchal social violence, Hebertists, Dantonists, legality, balance


• Absolute belief in the revolution as the “natural, rational and final order”.
• Robespierr: There is one truth
• Paranoid, brutal, self-pity.
• Saint Just: Invocation to death as solace, sword for the opponents and the “indifferents”
• The “General Will” concept

To page 88-89


March 19, 1990

French Revolution, Robespierre

December 1793, liberal faction of National Assembly were executed. Including Antoinette. Everyone was terrorized since even moderates were suspect.

Robespierre – Lawyer who developed the terrorism. Difference between constitutional and revolutionary govt. Preserve the individual, in constitutional government. To defend the citizens against govt. in Revolutionary govt, protect the Constitutional govt against usurpers. People must serve the revolution. In peace, virtue is the foundation of govt. Virtue and Terror the foundation of revolutionary govt. so terrorism is an extension of virtue. Those who doubted him were executed.

“Basically, peace, but temporary terrorism is useful” Natural goodness of man given. But the terrorism continued.

1794, July 24 – Robespierre himself executed.

In 19th Century:

Event seen as the natural outcome of popular democracy. Eventual growth of “Revolutionaries” in Europe – Marxists, Democrats, Anarchists. Majority of revolutionaries admired the Reign of Terror, but looked at it as failure.

The period of the Jacobins alive as a model. Neo-Jacobins.

The Anarchists – an attitude which rejects the state. Reject enforcement. Humans born free. Socialist bent, end result different than communism.

Anarchism is a lifestyle. Bakunin the guru of left wing movement in the 19th century. Russian intelligentsia was influenced by enlightenment, came from nobility.

In the 1840s, the spring of nations. Western Europe, Eastern Europe. Bakunin was involved in some; a “revolutionary type”. Finally sent to Russian prison after being sent back to Russia by the Germans. Marx, Engels also quite active then.

Nothing in Anarchist theory that adopts terrorism. Discovered the Neo-Jacobins. Liked the suitability of terrorism, the key to freedom. Complete equality. Only possible without government. Next time #3


Reading #2
MARCH 20, 1990

I. Christian persecution. Flight from Aleppo and Damascus, 1860, 1850, under Ottoman Empire.
II. Christian missionary schools. Revived Arabic. Most in Beirut.
III. Christian patriotism basis for Arab nationalism later.
IV. Opposition to Turks rule by Arabs in 1850. No respect for Turkish authority. Wanted freedom.



Anarchist Theory, late 1800s Europe. Names associated with anarchy:

Peter Kropotkin
Elisee Raclus
Jean Grave
Machael Bakunin
Enrico Malatesta
Johann Most
Emma Goldman
Alexander Berkman
Johann Must

I. Propaganda by deed

Italy, April 1877, Benevento Affair, stimulating, educating the masses.

II. Kropotkin 1879: Anarchist ideas should be spread by action.
III. Anarchists in 1870s were separate group in the “anti-authoritarians.”
IV. July 11, 1892, Ravachol, anarchist martyr. Set precedent. The attentats.



Transcripts of Syrian news
BBC Monitoring Service Part IV
FBIS Daily Report

Mid-19th Century – 1840, blood libels in Damascus. Anti-Semitism began resembling European Anti-Semitism.

1860 crisis. Lebanese autonomy under Ottomans.

Fighting by Christian/Druze because of religion, Muslim vs. non-Muslim; economic trade in hands of non-Muslims, as was tax collection; Christians exempt from taxes.

1831 Muhammad Ali conq. In 1839. Christian reforms, Muslim abolition of tax system.

1850s, 1860s Damascus Zealousness

Druze were hostile to Christians, Jews, 1860s, Damascus flooded by Christian refugees from Lebanon. Great time of indecision for Syrians. Christians were seen as collaborators with the Europeans.

Ulama – plural of alim. Majhs in local council were to lead the provinces using civil servants, but ulama took over the majlis. Majlis had own tax system controlled.

Waqf Tribe – formal owner of a property is God, proceeds go to Islam community after “manager’s” death. Ulama captured much of this property unlawfully. Mufti of Jerusalem used this money to finance the Arab Revolt of 1930s

Ulama did not want equal rights with Muslims and Jews/Christians.

Sharif of Mecca, family of descendants of Mohammed. Ulama. If the ulama in Damascus wanted new state formed, Ulama ruler the best. Preferably the Sharif of Mecca in 1858.

Process of modernization in Syria in mid-1800s.


1) Muslim fundamentalism against the Ottomans.
2) Ottoman nationalism
3) Arab nationalism, result of different political system in Syria

Cultural clubs started springing Arab nationalism. Pan Arabism.


MARCH 22, 1990

Usually, people whose lives are tolerable generally don’t need myths. People whose lives are troubled take more easily to myths. Positive, negative myths. PLO negative myth. U.S. Constitution a positive myth.

The Anarchists created the myth of terrorism. Fascists, Nazis invented myths to meet certain goals.

Anarchists actually used a minimum of violence, but the myth was carried off.

Sergei Nechaev ( Nacháyev) born in Russia, lower middle class, idealistic, criminal. 1866 – Czar Alexander II assassination attempt influenced him. Neo-Jacobin influence. With Bakunin, wrote little revolutionary thesis. Small document talks about the ideal life of the revolutionary, his character, his actions and emotions. Dehumanization element of terrorism outlined here. Excludes private vendettas, romanticism, written in Switzerland. Nechaev tried afterward to follow his own advice and spent the rest of his life in prison.

Paris Commune – the creation of a revolutionary commune in Paris. 1871 war between France/Germany. France lost. Socialists took over Paris afterward. Brought down by intense fights. Became the great myth of Anarchists.

Italian Anarchists: Propaganda by deed. Initial Socialist inspiration.

Dynamite was very useful to terrorism. Strong connection between technology and Socialist theory – “man’s progress tied to technology.”

“Dynamite is Democratic.” Most, anarchist.

French Anarchism of the 1880s. Intellectual groups in France. Center of Anarchist fermentation. Darwinian Survival flavor.

Declassé – unemployed by highly educated group. In fact, declassed.

Assassination cases of day: Ravashol, May 1, 1890. Mayday, French police put down protests brutally.

March 11, 1891 – Judge’s apt. blown up. “Wanted to terrorize the French,” Ravashol.

For oppressed –

1893, Dec. 9 – Vallant, threw bomb at French Parliament. Haunted by the idea of assassination.

June 24, 1894 – President of France assassinated by young Anarchist. Previous evening, an anarchist was executed. Even Anarchists of the day said it was too much.

European Anarchism tied to idea of revolution, terrorism was fighting the beginning of the Marxists as well.


Perception of nationhood different in Eastern Europe. Emphasis on national minorities, violent. No democratic tradition.

1878, Romania gained independence, but was autocratic. Political tendency toward nationalism.

America: Acquired characteristics, choice

Eastern Europe: Ethnicity criteria, barriers

Judeo-Phobia, Baldwin, “An American Abroad”

“Born in America” barrier

Ethnicity barrier.

Immigration Laws:

1) Foreigners encouraged; America
2) Law of return: Jews/Germans (ethnic concept). “No German may be deprived of the right to return to Germany” – 1949. Homogeneous nation-state.

Pg 19-24 work next time “American Perception”.

MARCH 25, 1880

Came to power Nov. 1970

Ba’ath party: Came to power 1963. Founded 1947 by two Damascus schoolteachers. In 1950, Akram Hourani joined, bringing army officers.


Study past tense
Pages 88
Page 89: 5,4,3

[handwritten characters in Hebrew on this page of notes]

MARCH 26, 1990

Russian Revolutionary Movement in America

Most moved to the U.S. along with huge waves of European immigrants. Turn of century, industrial revolution period. Few rights for workers. 1870s high unemployment. Riots, protests brutally suppressed. Major event: Haymarket Affair 1886, May 4, Chicago. Protest against Mayday violence.

Police tried to stop speaker from speaking. Bomb thrown. Police fired. Both sides injured. Chicago in pandemonium. Police arrested 9 anarchist leaders. Four sentenced to death, 4 to prison. Private owners had almost tyrannical power. Perpetrators of most violence. Labor movement began adopting these methods. Dynamite was used by Union members. No great ideology, simple, limited goals.

In the U.S., simple goal of destroying certain capitalist centers.

Organized crime in U.S. used such methods. Unions hired organized crime thugs, since they had a common enemy. In the 1890s, anarchism died down. Terrorism declined.

Russian Terrorism:

Narodniya Volia – Model of Idealistic Terrorism. Active roughly four years. Much notoriety gained. Best, brightest in Russia involved. Popular. Many were Jews. Many of these Jews came to Israel. Lehi cherished the “…Volia” tradition.

Started within the populist movement in the mid-1800s. Russian intellectual Alexander Herzen; disappointed in revolutionary movement. They hoped help would come from the West. Herzen developed an alternative Socialist analysis. Said Russia did not have to wait for Capitalism to “develop” for a revolution. Mir – Russian village in these areas, already widespread communist potential. Russian nobles owned these communes. His argument was to arm the peasants, introduce socialism. Don’t need the Western Europeans. Vision of a better society. This was the populist movement idea. There was already a communal idea present in Russian Culture. So the early ideas did not really change Russia.

Most of populist movement was idealistic. Not easily prone to violence. 1874, populist movement undertook idea of intellectuals talking to peasants; unheard of! The March to the People; great disappointment. Peasants were – well – STUPID. Social order was fine with the peasants. Many populists were jailed, as well.

After this great, comic failure, a few adopted terrorism.

1874 – 1879, many revolutionary incidents. Narodniya Volia born. Law of Center concept. Assassinate Czar and his friends.

MARCH 26, 1990


1900-1920, nationalism. Intellectuals knew they needed wide support. 120 activists, roughly, who had access to mediums of communication. Small group. In first and second decade, no Syrian structure for reform. So they found Sharif Husayn b Cali. Had religious, national legitimacy, legal legitimacy from Ottomans, British 1908, was nominated Sharif of Mecca. The powers wanted him to hold their own legitimate power. British wanted to avoid a Jihad against the Christians (British Christians).

In 1911, the British held off on contacts with Sharif because war was coming and they didn’t want to give potential bargaining booty to Sharif if it was needed for European powers.

Where was the Arab Homeland the nationalists wanted?

Documents: 1) Husayn/McMahon correspondence
1) Sykes-Picot agreement

In Britain’s Public Records Office, documents are unavailable until a period of time has passed. Did the British have anything to hide in number 1? This is the first time Syria was discussed as a separate entity. 5 letters from each side, ‘till 1916, March. Sharif wanted all of “Arab Homeland”. British wanted a special status. British defined Syria as roughly the shape it is today…..

Start in marked area of notebook next typing session…… #

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