Wednesday, June 30, 2010
SECTION 3 OF 18: HEBREW UNIVERSITY NOTES, 1990
Karl Marx photo from Wikipedia.
Class at The Hebrew University in Jerusalem in 1990 focused much on Syrian history.
Lurene's email in 2014: email@example.com
SECTION THREE POST
SYRIA – MARCH 28, 1990
1870s – 1880s – Sector of intellectuals in Syria. Reacted to Ottomans in Syria. Westernization, language, brutality.
“We are Arabs,” to Turks.
“We are Moslems,” to Europeans.
1918 to 1920 – Faisal in Syria Jan. 1919. Faisal gave up demands for all territories except Syria. “Arabistan” meant abrogating hundreds of treaties for the British and Tribal leaders. Arabs in Palestine opposed the mandate. Faisal liked idea of mandate and had friction w/nationalists, because of this.
French did not want Arab Hatred. Had North African interests. Sent advisors.
U.S. said 1916 agreement null and void, including Armenia, Iraq, Palestine, Syria.
King – Crane Commission August 1919 visited area and suggested American Suzerainity. Stupid, since America was isolationist. Clause that maybe, otherwise, back to British.
Sept. 1919, British pull out, leaving French and Arab nationalists to fight.
Faisal agreed to French control over coastal areas, let French “guide” policy, allow neutral zone between leb, Syria. Nationalists refused to ratify this, in March 1920, declared independence of Syria instead. May 1920, nationalists declare war on French.
July 14, 1920. Clash begins. Maysalun. No more Hashemite Kingdom in Syria. Less than 2 years of independent Syria. #
MARCH 29, 1990
[note: Hebrew characters of original notes not here]
Lukahat to take
Leshecov to lay down
Bate holim hospital
Lahiote to be
Lemargeesh to feel
Pg.94 homework, 90, 91, 92, 93 due Wednesday
No class Monday
MARCH 29, 1990
[50 % of grade
midterm after vacation
after item #9 on list
5 out of 7 terms
half a page specific
Terrorism to bring down Czar in Russia. Terrorism the peak of radicalization pattern in all cases. Terrorists are not crazy, sane, but may be driven by political conditions. [?] of a radical group, can’t tell who a terrorist will be.
1878, Zasulitz shoots commander in St. Petersburg. Student radical. General Trepor wounded only, but important symbolically. 1879 Narodnya Voliya formed, adopts revolutionary platform, blows the top of Social pyramid! Terrorism adopted as strategy.
Norod. Voliya tried to bring an end to Russian oppression. Mainly the Central Committee. Were democrats, did not have the “catechism” idea, Nechayev’s ideas, felt guilty. Became cultural heroes. Idealistic Terrorism. Czar Alexander II assassinated finally, but N. Voliya broken up in (1881?).
N. Voliya also underestimated govt., upper class strength. By 1882, very few. 1884, N. Voliya finished. Major blow to populist movement. Made a psychological contribution to Russian Revolution.
In the short run, N. Voliya failed, but made great strides in changing the perception of authority in Russia. “The Emp is naked!”
Alexander Ulianov, elder brother of Lenin, liked N. Voliya. Was executed for his own activities. Influenced Lenin.
Once the regime was down, Bolsheviks were more brutal toward idealistic/Terrorist groups.
N. Voliya, many Jews. Total sacrifice. Morality central to them. Mindful of consequences. Practiced individual terrorism, not mass terrorism. Not indiscriminate. Usually a high civilian official. Limited terrorism which is aware of the moral problem, consequences. Narodraya Voliya at the top of “morality” stick in terrorism. “The left feels guilty and they have to explain,” in contrast to right-wing terrorists, who don’t feel as guilty. They don’t feel an explanation is necessary.
Lehi, although very rightist, cherished the N. Voliya. Shamir glorified terrorism in his writings. Lehi called themselves “terrorists” because, viewing N. Voliya, looked at it as virtuous.
Marxist Approach to Terrorism
Marx, Engels did not really like the idea of Terrorism. Hostile to terrorism. Social transformation was the goal of classical Marxism. Economic transform. Real revolution is when a new class takes over. Must be political. Did not like terrorism because he thought – Marx – it was unuseful toward any real social, political transformation. England, France, Germany were the nations of which he was speaking, countries which were producing large numbers of workers because of highly developed capitalism.
To Marx, Engels terrorism too distracting to workers. Bitter toward terrorism. But he did not reject the practice on occasion, like during a revolution. The ideology – propaganda by deed – was bullshit to him.
On Jacobins, “an immature move”, in the French Revolution – “Revolution of the Middle Class”. Marx was very angry at Bakunin, Marx, Engels. Laughed at Anarchists.
Also spoke @ Irish Terrorism. Did not take it seriously.
NATIONALISM & INTERNATIONALISM
MARCH 29, 1990
1. Jewish national consciousness holds a territorial tie to Eratz Israel (Genesis 17:2 Joshua 5:10)
2. The Arab national consciousness also holds a territorial tie to Eratz Israel (Koran: The confederated 33:26 pg 292) tribes.
Book: P.J. Vatikiah’s “Islam and the State”; Harkabi “Arab and Jew”
For Monday: Pg 116 PLO Charter, 123-125 Shipler
UMMA = Nation = Community of Believers
Joshua led the Jews into Cannan 1,250 B.C. Passover for 3,500 years.
Islam: “masters of the land”. 627, Jerusalem conquered by Islam.
Chapter in Koran on Jews: The Family of Imkam 3;110 – image of Jew as Coward and Evil-doer
Two competing ethnic conceptions of the nation.
Both oriented toward past.
APRIL 2, 1990 LECTURE
Government totally detached from Social Structures, they said. “You get a revolution, but not a socialist revolution.” The only time Marxists backed terrorism.
Lenin and Trotsky were orthodox Marxists. Were opposed to terrorism because they did not think it was useful to a true Marxist Revolution. Heated debate between Lenin and the “Social Revolutionaries.” Lenin said they were not serious, they were adventurers. Were losing touch with the people. Plus, Lenin said, you are always on the run; in no position to foster revolutionary consciousness within the people. Must have constant contact with the people, must educate them.
Intellectual Terrorism – Lenin’s alternative. Liked Jacobins.
Trotsky – Before revolution in early 20s. Communism and Terrorism, wrote book. Before rev., was critical of Narodnya Voliya and identified them, at the same time, as the gap between the Czarist regime and the people.
White Army was the army against Bolsheviks. Campaign of terror included the elimination of social revolutionaries, by Bolsheviks. Interventionists were separate from the Russian White Army, which was against the Red Army.
Trotskey said no fundamental difference between terrorism and war because in both you kill few to terrorize many. Terrorism as a symbol not Marxist theory.
Third World Marxism
This ends discussion of leftist terrorism.
Right Wing Terrorism –
George Sorel – cross between classical Marxism and modern Fascism. At least part of the intellectual, Fascist right had roots in Marxism.
Reflections of Violence, by Sorel. A disappointed Marxist. It was clear to him that Marxist theory did not work. What bothered him was that it was deterministic. Millions of people thought the future was theirs in the 19th Century, then were disappointed. It was clear that both sides did not behave according to Marxist thought. Sorel thought the Bg needed revitalization because they had become more accommodating with the workers.
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