Wednesday, June 30, 2010
SECTION 2 OF 18: HEBREW UNIVERSITY NOTES, 1990
Photo by Lurene of the 1990 class notebook.
Lurene's email in 2014: email@example.com
SECTION 2 POSTING:
After 1916, Brit., French, Russians Apr – Oct 1916 exchanged letters.
(Sharif under impression that he would control, dole out booty) Sharif wanted his own Hashemite Kingdom.
Sykes-Picot Agreement made public by Russians (Lenin Govt.). Syria the perfect concession for the allies of the British – not very valuable to the British.
Oct. 1915, British realized it would pay the French in Syrian Currency. Syria was important to French for historic, economic reasons. Wanted a Sea Route. British viewed Syria was less costly alternative.
Zone A – French influence
Zone B – French direct rule (Lebanon)
Clear definition of which parts would have which status. British continued to mislead both parties.
1918 – Faisal b. Husayn enters Damascus as first of British Units to enter Syria. Strengthened British chicanery. Declared King. Oct.
Now, Middle East officially divided. Iraq under British as was Transjordan, Palestine.
Syria under French. Internal aspects not important. British just wanted parts, oil, holy places, diplomatic duality.
Sept. 1918 – British pull out of Syria.
April 1920 – League of Nations approve British, French mandates.
July 1920 – Maysalun, final battle between French, Syrian. Faisal went to exile. Now, Maysalun a Syrian national symbol. Still commemorates.
- First struggle of Arab character on Syria
- Mandates. What did French want? What was Faisal’s mission? To forge first part of independent Middle East. Wanted Syria to be lynchpin. But he looked at the Middle East from British view, not French view.
- January 1919. Paris Conference. Faisal said he was only interested in Syria. This, of course, against French interests. Faisal knew the facts, but neglected the French factor. Trusted the British too much. But Faisal talked about British promises, did not mention correspondence, talked about U.S. President Wilson’s “self-determination” beliefs.
#4 POLITICAL DICTIONARY, A
On Mandates: Article 22 of Covenant of League of Nations: “tutelage of such peoples should be entrusted to advanced nations as Mandatories on behalf of the League.”
“A Mandatories”: Palestine, Transjordan, Mesopotamia (Iraq), Syria (includes Lebanon), considered on their way to independence.
B and C: Overseas possessions of Germany in Africa and Oceania.
San Remo Conference, April 1920, decided distribution of Mandatories.
May 1926: Lebanon becomes republic w/constitution
French still control defense. Foreign affairs. Right to Veto.
June 1941 – Syria, Lebanon occupied by British, Free French forces ousting Vichy France.
Jan 1944 – Syria throws off mandatory
1945-1946 – French, British withdraw troops.
READING #4, 6
French intentions during mandate:
• Opposing, weakening Arab nationalism
• Strengthen Christian, Alawis, Kurds
• Strengthen Lebanon
• Need to build up strength of France
• Compete Great Britain
• Delay, curtail independence movements
• Bad example of Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930
• Fear of chain reaction in French possession in North Africa
French established several indigenous governments:
• Greater Lebanon Aug. 1920
• Alawis “State”, July 1922
• Druze, March 1921 (Jebel Druze)
• Aleppo and Damascus, Sept 1920 including the Sanjaq
1922 Federation failed. Modern Syria and Lebanon eventually emerged after WWII
THE FIRST WORLD WAR AND THE PEACE SETTLEMENT
Situation in 1914:
• Arab nationalists who hated Turks
• Christians who wanted French help in Lebanon
• French interest in Catholic, Christian elements. Mediterranean power
• British, Indian routes for oil
• Zionists: practical and political
• Weakening Ottomans (Turkey)
• Sharif Hussein: organize an Arab revolt for British against Turks. Hussein/McMahon letters 1915
• 1917 Balfour Declaration
• Sykes-Picot Agreement, may 16, 1916
• 1918 Wilson’s 14 points
• 1918 – Oct, WWI comes to Damascus, Famine, Turk oppression
• French did not recognize correspondence between British, Hussein. Hostility toward France.
• Amir Faisal in 1919 conference. Informal agreement w/Zionist Weizmann.
• British pulled out: Anglo-French Agreement, Sept. 1919
• March 20, 1920: Faisal crown of Syria, Palestine, by Syrians. British, French reject this. Immediately after, the San Remo Conference.
• After Arab revolt against French, Faisal flees. 1920, July 25, Maisalun.
RESULT OF PEACE SETTLEMENT FOR ARABS:
• Lost Ottomans, Mandatory established through Syria-Colonial rule to them;
• Jewish Zionism
• Anti-French feeling as French Mandate began
MARCH 28, 1990
NO HEBREW CLASS ON MONDAY
[Note: these Hebrew class notes only available with original notebook. – Lurene, Dec. 2009]
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