Wednesday, June 30, 2010
SECTION 10 OF 18: HEBREW UNIVERSITY NOTES, 1990
Terrorism sometimes meets goals of its tacticians. In this section, Israel and Algeria are examples, though it's a brief section. Whatever the goals, I would still say in 2010 that terrorism violates civilized standards of behavior.
First photo, above, posted on Wikipedia, of Avraham Stern, leader of Irgun and member of Lechi. (He attended Hebrew University in Jerusalem, where these class notes were taken by me in 1990.) Both Irgun and Lechi were Zionist terror groups, a subject of studies for me in Jerusalem in 1990.
Lurene's email in 2014: firstname.lastname@example.org
Stern, shot by British police in Tel Aviv for terror activities, died in 1942, too soon to see the state of Israel formally declared by his compatriots in 1948. So, to call him an Israeli terrorist is a little inaccurate since there was not yet a modern state of Israel when he died.
Next, nice photo of 2005 Algerian coastal town, tourist resorts in area. Pic by D. Boilley of France posted on Wikipedia.
In the late 1950s, when the F.L.N. was active against the French, the terror scenes with Algerian civilians were horrific. I found photos from that era, but they are too awful for me to post here. Graphic.
How graphic? Decapitated heads with the victim's frozen facial expression as he faced his own death. Both the F.L.N. and French Army committed acts of terror, according to modern historians who've studied that war.
I saw the 1960 French horror movie "Les yeux sans visage" in January of 2010 (Eyes without a face) made by Georges Franju (France 1912-1987). I could not help imagining this war in Algeria influenced some French cinema strongly in 1960. When it comes to this film, it's clear.
SECTION TEN POST
HEBREW UNIVERSITY NOTES
The Israeli Etzel and Lechi had a lot to do with British withdraw of Palestine, along with the U.N. and the United States. Etzel and Lechi rare example of successful terrorism. (in 1937-38, etzel had many anti-Arab operations)
F.L.N. in Algeria – First organization combining leftist orientation and nationalist struggle. Most nationalism right-wing. Marxist traditional anti-nationalists. More concerned with Supranational working class.
F.L.N. used terrorism as a major strategy. Like massive murder that took place in Vietnamese Villages by Viet-Cong.
Enforcement Terrorism – enforcing the people to side with YOU. Whether locals would be loyal to French or F.L.N. French tried to offer French citizenship. Unimaginable terrorism. Western-style cigarette smoking punishable by death. Limbs cut off. French came back with retaliatory terrorism against Moslems.
French Casba operation – used extreme torture. Eliminated terrorism by Algerians, but in 1956-1958 when French public heard, created huge controversy. 1959-1960 moral crisis in France. War was lost because of this. French brought De Gaulle back by French Right, but in 1960 he decided that France needed to give up Algeria. Again, terrorism worked. But at a vicious cost.
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