Wednesday, June 30, 2010
SECTION 12 OF 18: HEBREW UNIVERSITY NOTES, 1990
Photo from University of Mississippi website exhibitoronline.com shows James Meredith in September of 1962. He was the first black student to enter and graduate from the university in those days of battle for the American civil rights movement.
In photo, Meredith is holding the newspaper that was on news racks the day he entered university. For Meredith to be admitted, the U.S. Supreme Court had to issue a ruling, and President John F. Kennedy had to order troops to the scene. Nonetheless, deadly riots broke out. Mississippi's then-gov. Barnett was trying to maintain racial segregation in Mississippi.
Even after Meredith was on campus, he was harassed by white, segregationist students day in, day out. It's a twisted American story altogether. (The university eagerly denounces segregationism today, teaches the school's history accurately and encourages African-American students to apply.)
You need to be careful while studying the 1960s because there is both romantic myth and ugly reality in the popular stories told in 2010.
Reality. Note headlines on paper for that 1962 day; terror in Cuba, terror at home. The 1960s were years of genuine fear for the United States and the world. If you want to learn about American terrorism, revisit events of the 1960s.
Today is January 17, 2010. Tomorrow is MLK day, a federal holiday. Martin Luther King, of course, was assassinated April 4, 1968 in Tennessee.
This posting only opens a small door on the 1960s. More terror notes about 1960s are on the way at this same address...Tune in:
Lurene's email in 2014: firstname.lastname@example.org
SECTION TWELVE POST
HEBREW UNIVERSITY NOTES
MAY 10, 1990
Since 1945, U.S. Foreign Policy Aims of World Stability. The strategy for attaining world stability changes in accordance with the changes in the power balance. The right to national freedom is not a U.S. foreign policy goal. It is an aftermath occurring as a consequence of the changing pattern of power.
Feb 1945 to Aug 1945 (Yalta to Potsdam), America saw a power equilibrium.
Truman agreed to “transfer” 2 million ethnic Germans from Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland back to Germany with no compensation. American embarrassment.
Einstein, Fermi, Oppenheimer all Jewish, also Teller.
America had unique diplomatic power, military and economic, too.
French, English, Arabic, Spanish, Russian the five official languages of official diplomacy.
Ford Memorandum of 1975:
• American Veto of all punitive measures against Israel
• Non-recognition of PLO. Read PLO charter pg. 116
1.40, 1.30: 2.70; Crackers 3.00 Cigs 6.00 Coffee 2.00 NORT. Creamer – later maybe – Call Oded
MATERIAL FOR FINAL STARTS HERE
TERRORISM [this word in Hebrew in 1990 notebook]
MAY 14, 1990
Terrorism since 1960s…
Differs because of modern communications. Captured imagination of world and became important subjectively. If one is objective, terrorism is still a small group phenomenon.
Terrorism since 60s took place in a permissive age. Has chance to gain some legitimacy. Leftist rhetoric re-emerged as a potent force. Marxism in a modern form re-emerged. The cold war and the involvement of nation-states. Wars by proxy. Terrorism several steps below nuclear conflict in superpower conflict. Use of intelligence networks, etc. Also, terrorism became international; Palestinians, Japanese, Germans operated in alternative international locations. Finally the emergence of world communication network. Propaganda by deed was a 19th Century concept, but used more effectively now. However, it is still a big myth that it is on the decline. Slowly being phased out. But several new categories of terrorism arose. Three out of five: Terrorism of new left, Latin America and Middle East. Also nationalist–separatist, neo-fascism.
NEW LEFT – least expected, least precedented. SLA in America, for example. Young, university radicals. 1968 encyclopedias didn’t even have an entry on Terrrorism. It was outdated. In 1935, there was an entry.
How did terrorism emerge in the modern, democratic world? In 1950s avant-Garde thought we had reached the end of ideology in era following War.
Delegitimization of post-war western structures, new effect of modern terror.
New left was never very organized, which was both its strength and weakness. 1960s were student revolt years. New left had an influence. New left itself has several stages of radicalization. Major target the idea of cold war; Stalinism and western democracy portrayal of leftism as Soviet monopoly.
C. Wright Mills – ideology of new left. He said classical Marxism Leninism and classical liberalism are conservative. Do not address modern problems. Nuclear holocaust emminant! Wrote THE POWER ELITE. Military-Industrial Complex term of Eisenhower coined in 1960.
POWER ELITE – says major decisions in Soviet u made by same, small group. Decisions made according to their interests. New movement of ideas needed.
Mystique of the Third World; new idea of “positive neutralism”. Indonesia Bandug Conference in 1955; Neuru of India, Nasser of Egypt and Tito of Yugoslavia. Formation of non-aligned groups; thus, Positive Neutralism.
Tremendous guilt in West about colonialism, imperialism, so it became popular.
In 1958, mass movement in England. Anti-nuclear movement. Civil rights movement begins in U.S. simultaneously, also associated with left, religion, non-violence.
This created at start of 60s an orientation in student new-left.
Princeburough, North Carolina. Feb. 1, 1960. Four black students enter greensburough Dept. Store whites only Cafeteria. Told to leave and refuse. Introduced idea of “sit-in”. Hundreds in 15 southern cities joined, mostly blacks, some whites.
This early activity contributed to change in mid-south, but in deep south resentment crystallized.
Freedom Rides between blacks and whites, on buses. Creation of SNCC – student non-violent coordination committee. Not radical, exception in regard to civil rights. King-like ideas of non-violence.
SDS – students for a democratic society established. Long statement in Port Huron by President Tom Hayden. Manifesto of Michigan Sociology Graduates.
Port Huron statement important, and rather brilliant document. Attacked the American establishment, military industrial complex, but, more important, critiques of civil condition. Discrimin. Danger of nuclear war. Said American parties too materialistic, not idealistic. Introduced important concepts; participatory democracy. Powerful Symbol of new left. Protest against the authoritarian treatment of University students, campus situation. Called the university a community of Controversy which they want to be.
SNCC and SDS became Spear-heads after 1962, entered extra-parliament politics. Talking about Rebellious politics, as not to work within establishment:
1) Mississippi Summer
3) Freedom and Democratic Party
1) Mississippi Summer – Voter Reg. drives. Many badly beaten. Met Ku Klux Klan. Killing of 3 students by local sheriff.
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