Wednesday, June 30, 2010


Photo by Lloyd Francis of Henry Kissinger in San Francisco, 1987. No discussion of the history of Mideast terrorism can get far without mention of Henry Kissinger, who served as Secretary of State in the Nixon and Ford administrations. His still-controversial opinions can be researched in various venues, but especially on his website at

Unpublished, academic class notes, “Hebrew University Notes March 1990-June 1990 Jerusalem”, from various classes I took as a visiting student at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. (Section One, Dec. 26, 2009 post.)

Lurene's email in 2016:
(360) 656-6838 desk
(360)920-2896 cell

I was there as a one-year student during the 1989-1990 academic year, on loan from San Francisco State University’s International Program, as it was titled. I had to win a spot with grades and recommendations from Cal State University system. The first Intifadah raged on for the entire year I studied there. I was much more left-wing in those days, politically naïve, and too sure of my own opinions.

The Hebrew University, or “Ooniversitah Eevreet” as it is pronounced in Hebrew, is situated on Mt. Scopus in Jerusalem.

It was founded by several historical figures: scientist Albert Einstein, Psychologist/Dr. Sigmund Freud, philosopher Martin Buber, and the first Israeli President Chaim Weizmann.

I was there as a student, but am today angry with myself for losing/not saving more of my written work. It was, frankly, of only mediocre quality, if that even, but I still wish I had it. These notes, luckily, I found one day while digging around old papers in my closet.

These 1990 notes below are from Jerusalem only, not San Francisco. I still have books from those years in Israel with the text of original documents. For example, American President George Washington's words of welcome to the Hebrew Congregation of Newport, Rhode Island, in 1790.

Other work, both from the Hebrew University and from other colleges, remains lost. This means various notes from studies I did on 19th and 20th century Jewish history, anti-Semitism in Europe and elsewhere, the Hebrew language, the Holocaust, Nazis, history of fascism, a detailed history of Israel, the history of Mideast oil and its politics, terrorism, the history of Syria and the history of nationalism in Europe and the Mideast.

I studied Einstein in Jerusalem, but I'm pretty sure these readings and lectures were part of the Jewish history course. My college course focused only on Einstein's work was at San Francisco State.

I lost or neglected to save many less-exciting course notes as well, of course. I guess I lost most of this work in routine apartment moves between Berkeley and San Francisco, etc.

Outside this embarassing loss, I remember the Jerusalem campus as intellectually serious, but unpretentious and welcoming to all who were on it, whether they were scholars or not.

That atmospheric detail is an important note because I recall feeling a little intimidated during my first week on campus because of Mr. Einstein’s role in the founding of the school where these notes were taken:


Sec. One: Modern Revolutionary Terror:

No. A - Began mid-1800s – Russian Anarchists Nechaev, Bakunin, Kropofkin. Inspired by the Assassins. Before this, Islamic and Jewish religious groups. Sicarii, Zealots (against Rome).

No. B – K.K.K., The Sons of Liberty

Sec. Two – The Anarchist Tradition

No. A – Society full of latent hostility

No. B – Devised moral conventions

No. C – History replaces God as our final judge

No. D -- Atrocity frees/faces “convention” from soul and society.

Sec. Three – “the critical factor in generating reactions is the status of the assailants.” Govern. Suppress evidence, rebels publicize.

No. A – Credibility of terrorist groups over peaceful revolutionaries

No B – Terrorism drives victim population to frenzy, increase hatred.

No. C – The best situation for the terrorist may be an irresolute govt., torn between conflicting popular demands.

No. D – Compelling the strong to attack the weak

No. E – Terror as personal Therapy. Conflict.

No. F – Sadism, guilt-free terror exercises.


Governments have become a huge, squid-like form. Terrorism perhaps the only precise instrument visible to extremists. “Act-Up.” Not terrorist, but an example of publicity seeking tactics. – LKH #

Morality of Just Vengence

Theory of the lesser evil

Unavailability of access, Wil Konson, “political terrorism.”

# end March 14, 1990 terrorism class #

Hebrew March 14, 1990 class notes, but with actual handwritten Hebrew characters omitted:

Test - bohan
Hazot – this
All – kol
This – hazot
Vacation – hootsha
Twenty – One Hundred Numbers the same form, no feminine or masculine forms
16 – sheeshah essar
17 – sheva essar
12 – shnim essar
About or Approximately – bayerek
About as in “talking about…..” – al

# end March 14, 1990 Hebrew class lesson #

Syria class, March 14, 1990

What is the national psychology of Syria?

Drive for leadership in region and Arab world in Political development.

Dispute with Iraq ongoing, two rival civilizations, Mesopotamian, and Egyptians, was a single government under Omeya Dynasty, 7th to 13th century, competition between Baghdad, Cairo, Syria center, Mongols invaded Baghdad in 1215, since 1250. Syrians not able to be the capital of Muslim empire, al sham (Syria), Byzantia, Arabia border: al-sham. Byzantia main challenge to Moslem empire. Connections al-sham to your left. The sun of the North, maybe. Battle zone separating Islam from Dar al Harb, non-Islam. Syria’s obligation, traditional, to sprearhead the infidels. The enemy was Christian, and those areas were Dar al-Harb. From early period, Zealots in Syria.
Jund: military, administrative division in Syria. First, in 5 areas: Filistine (Israel), Ordan (Jordan), Damascus, Hims (North of Damascus), Qinnasria. Five provinces of Syria – which is how Assad defines Syria today. Mid-Seventh Century. Lebanon not part of this. Central control from Damascus. “Jund Junud”

Umayyad Period 661-750

Abbasid, 750-1258

In Abbasid, “Southern Syria” was Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Aleppo, the North Maghrib – North Africa/Eastern Syria. Included Cairo. Cairo, Baghdad always in competition over Syria. Damascus a prize. Muawyah – 661 – 750, Abbasid 750 – 1258, In Abbaside, Southern Syria, as it was known, was Israel, Jordan, and Lebanon. Jaleppo was the north.

Maghrib – Eastern Syria, which was actually North Africa. Included Cairo, Baghdad, which were two areas always in competition over Syria. Damascus was a prize. Muawyah – 661 in power – first Umayyad Caliph. He choose Syria as center of territory. He was married into the major tribes of Syria. First to unite Syria with Arabism and Islam. Named Caliph in Jerusalem first (religious), then Damascus (Arab center)

Caliph – Political, military, religious leader. In place of the prophet.

Until 661 Mecca was the Islamic Center. Jerusalem was in Syria. Syrians still see Jerusalem as their religious capital Umayyads built the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa.

Constantinople was constantly besieged by Syria because it was Christian. Every summer. Umayyads started falling though. Movement in Iraq.

Why was Damascus the capital?

Because it was ideally located, actually. But was moved for practical reasons – the empire was expanding. Antioch (northwest of Damascus) served as a capital when Umayyads attacked Byzantines. Moved eastward most of time. After 720s, Damascus only official capital, not practically.

In 725, people revolted against the Caliph. Started in Filistine [Philistine] and spread. Weakened the Umayyad Dynasty.

Economic, political frustration of people because of shifting economic base because of “capital” flight.

750 – Abbasids come to power. Still did not want Damascus as capital. Came to power with the head of the Persians – new converts. An Arab/Persian Rivalry. Iraq was more suited than Syria, the Persian Center (?). Islam a “missionary” religion. Persians were different, role was unique, played a “missionary” role.

Syrian-Iraqi Rivalry: Since 685, Umayyads killed Syrian Garrisons. People who resented Islam, its spread. Syrian Arabs came to dominate other Arabs.

New revolt when military centers of Syria shifted. Iraqis revolt. Syrian Arab Umayyads treated other Syrians preferentially.

Syrian army had tribal factions. Yamans from South Arabia, Qays from N. Arabia.

Heritage of factionalism in Syria. Tribes were very important to individual identity.

Military equipment started changing hands under Umayyad, contributing to the downfall of the Umayyad. Especially as they moved Eastward. Less control of army, no economic control. Capital moved. Abbasids had a natural opening. Umayyad period was unique because of the Syrian dominance in Arabia. Process of non-Arabs taking over.

# end March 14, 1990 notes #

March 15, 1990 Hebrew class notes:

Here – po
There – sham
Close to – kruval
Far from – rachoch may….
To help – la azor
There is a long line? – yesh toor aroke?
Short – ktsar
Limit – gvuul
To pay for – lay shalek
Party – miseebah
Fast – ma ar
Slow – le at
A lot – ha ravah
A little – katsat or may-oat
To smoke – le ashon
[unknown definition] – mitz oo yahn

# End Hebrew notes for March 15, 1990 #

# Start Terrorism class notes March 15, 1990. actual notes now write “Terrorism” in Hebrew, probably so I could spell the word as used in Jerusalem newspapers of day. #

What do modern terrorists wish to accomplish?

Distinction between political/social goals and personal goals. In insurgent terrorism (not state-sponsored), terrorism fights authority and instills fear in the establishment, shake confidence/publicity seeking also very important aspect sending a message, propagate/The anarchists in 1880’s doctrine of “propaganda by deed”. One bomb more effective than 100 leaflets.

In the modern era, terrorists successful at this. 1972 Munich games. Israeli athletes killed. 2nd question “what is it all about…” Symbiosis: Terrorism and the media. They love each other. Most terrorists may not achieve political power, but get their message across.

Drive the opponent into counter-terrorism: Destroy government image./French in Algeria in 1950s (The Battle of Algiers, movie) – French employed massive counter terrorism and in the long run the French lost to political pressures – PLO strategy of putting PLO bases in civilian centers – PLO argued Israel was equally terroristic

Destroy governments credibility among its citizens – mass insecurity in population – Red Brigades in Italy in 1970s created atmosphere of near-anarchy in Italy – Drug cartels in Columbia (distinction between individual terrorism, spot targets. Mass terrorism uses uninvolved civilians/Lechi in Israel went after Individual British.)

War by Proxy: important development in modern international relations; states use other terrorist organizations to accomplish ends – In 70s, substitute for potential nuclear war – one theory.

Individual goals of the terrorist – reconstruction of one’s dignity – response to a perceived humiliation – they want their grievance taken seriously. Terrorism is the weapon of the weak – terrorism is the only option for some, who would prefer conventional warfare.

France Fanon – Black psychiatrist, Algerian who belonged to liberation struggle – came up with “the wretched of the earth”, violence purifies – said the natives had been so humiliated that their self-respect had been destroyed by white men – violence will liberate psychologically – looked at terrorism s useful – leftist tradition of uneasiness with violence – Fanon “justified it” with writing – adopted by Black Panthers – from Martinique, he joined the Revolution in Algeria.

New recruits sent to violent initiation tasks to be “purified” – strengthen the individual – most terrorists are as sane as the general population. Initially, it was assumed they were pathological. Tried to study the “terrorist mindset”, but found nothing. Nothing clinically wrong with terrorists – it’s a creation of social, political circumstances – no real cyclical patterns.


History is full of events that qualify as terrorism. State terrorism, tyranny, most ubiquitous – Rulers who themselves do not respect the law – Instill fear in the people – Have to perpetuate this with more, more fear –

Doctrine of Tyrannicide; legitimacy of killing the Tyrant – Roman idea – Part of the education of the Roman Nobility was the “Tyranicide” doctrine – considered a virtuous act – Julius Caesar became a Tyrant and assassination was a legitimate form of resistance – With early Christianity, doctrine lost favor because of the strong criticism of violence –

Then, modern thinkers termed government as a “servant of the people”. – Tyranicide given some renewed legitimacy.


Conducted by religious believers, is justified by religious rationales – “Holy Terror” – One of the most important branches of Modern Terrorism – Two examples: Sicarii before destruction of 2nd temple, suicide of Massada. Assassins.

Modern Sicaricin in Israel (targets leftist symbols) comes from Sicarii. Josephus the historian wrote about the final days of Judea – wrote a little about the Sicarii –

Sicarii were in the “Zealots”. Zealots did not want to compromise with the Romans. Politically insane position because Judea was only a colony in Rome’s Empire – Jews wanted MORE freedom, they were already allowed certain freedoms – Since Judaism is more than religion – Relations with the Romans deteriorated. The Zealots were true believers. Concluded that God would help. Carried out terrorist acts on Romans to radicalize them, and move opinion of Jewish moderates – “Sica” – Weapon used to stab Romans.


On holidays, they would move about Jerusalem stabbing notables – created atmosphere of fear – eliminated moderate Jewish leaders – Sicariis became leaders in the struggle – when the Romans closed in on Jerusalem, Sicariis burned all the food stores, hoping for divine intervention – Jerusalem, Temple destroyed – In the end, Massada suicide – Seen now as negative influence on Jewish thought, the Ultra-Orthodox – created civil war among Jews, contributing to final destruction.

1984, Jewish underground discovered. They were preparing to blow up the Dome of the Rock to bring back the Messiah, a Sicarrii-like tactic.

Assassins – Operated North of Iran. For 200 years used terrorism as its major mode of operation. High priest wanted to clean up Islam. They never succeeded, but survived for 200 years. Marco Polo wrote about them. Hashishia – users of hash. To kill in the name of God. Fedayeen: “Men of sacrifice”. Brought down in 13th Century of Moguls. – end – NEXT TIME, FRENCH REVOL. TERRORISM

Nationalism and Internationalism
March 15, 1990
New Western European Identity

The balance of power from 1945 reveals two centers of gravity: US/USSR. There has been a shift in the power balance in the case of both superpowers, but its cause is different. ANS: focus on client states rather than patron states.

Client states gaining independence. Transforming status economically.

Common Market – EEC – 1957. Did not allow American entry.

Book: Gordon Craig: “The Germans”

Tornado/Leopard – German-made weapons

USSR: Intrinsic decline

USA: Losing power relative to Europe

Russian Price: requisitions of property; Gold Reserves taken; No credit; Quotas for Soviets in production, set price.

Negative role models: when a state serves as a model for what should not be done.

Tradition of national strife between nations in Europe. France – German rivalry.


1) Loyalty to the nation
2) National independence, freedom from influence of another nation or power
3) Emphisis; National interests, national security.

Homework: Look up definition of “Nation”

Russia claimed to liberate Eastern Europe #

DEFINITION OF NATION: A large community of people associated with a particular territory. Usually, single language, some political character and aspirations.

DEFINITION OF STATE: Organized political community with its apparatus of govt. #

I & N
March 19, 1990 lecture

“Internationalism” under Russia for Eastern Europe; a sour idea, sour experience. They prefer 1789 situation. Reactionary ideas, the nation-state. Reactionary: repeating history re-action. Going back to old idea of the nation. Language, religion, ethnicity, culture ties.

1789 – French Revolution. Liberty, but for the French. Attacked other nations’ nationalism. Tried to spread influence of France. Russian example. Germany too.

From 1800, grew to condemnation of different races, different nation-states. (Lord Acton)

Why Eastern Europe does not have history of democracy:

Nation State, a sovereign state with relatively homogeneous people.

Russian/American ? example vis a vis Palestinians: who are “the nation”

1) Territorial Unit
2) Cultural Unit
3) Political Unit

The right to vote, elect national leadership – CITIZENSHIP.

American example preceded European model. 1776-American – 1789 – France.

Other definitions:

1) A people of common origin, traditions, language, capable of constituting a nation-state – Rigid, “who belongs to the nation? – British dictionary


1) Open, public diplomacy
2) Freedom of Navigation in Seas
3) Free trade
4) Arms control
5) Self-determination (?) of colonial populations consent with them
6) Guarantees for Balkan states, Serbia, Russia
7) Ottoman empire; autonomous development
8) Independent Polish state
9) An association of nations to guarantee security


KOHN – The Idea of Nationalism

From back to front:

Sovereignty; relations, state to citizen; relations between states

Nationalism; sympathy with other nationals; distrust of foreigners, indifference

• International relations are guided by a lack of permanent common interests
• Feelings in International Relations are subject to swift change. Nationality as “the whole”.
• Enlightened rationalism; faith in the oneness of humanity, value of the individual
• “Nationality is a state of mind corresponding to a political fact,” or striving to.


Acton –

“Exile is the nursery of Nationality, as oppression is the school of liberalism”


Nation definitions, continued…

2) A community of people possessing a defined territory and Govt.
3) Historically developed community of people with a territory, economic life, culture and language in common. Fits U.S., not Europe….U.S. dictionary – Websters…all these definitions miss the psychological concept in the definition.

Homework: pgs 10-18 in workbook. Optional: Nations and Nationalism, 1-8, Gellner, Nationalism 62-92, Kedourie

MARCH 19, 1990

Mishmash – peaches
Ougat Mishmesh – peach cake or peach pie

Homework: write out budget for month, itemized, in Hebrew.

[Handwritten notes I took are left out for this 2010 version because of simple text/character difficulties. It would take long time to correctly duplicate for record here.]



• Poor were left out of the “balance of French Revolution
• Revolutionary coercion – Jocobinism
• 1792 armed coup
• Legis. Assembly was elected on the basis of property qualification. Monarchy out. Feudal ties or dues abolished?
• Jacobins, for the welfare of the masses. Political, economic dictatorship enrages, anarchal social violence, Hebertists, Dantonists, legality, balance


• Absolute belief in the revolution as the “natural, rational and final order”.
• Robespierr: There is one truth
• Paranoid, brutal, self-pity.
• Saint Just: Invocation to death as solace, sword for the opponents and the “indifferents”
• The “General Will” concept

To page 88-89


March 19, 1990

French Revolution, Robespierre

December 1793, liberal faction of National Assembly were executed. Including Antoinette. Everyone was terrorized since even moderates were suspect.

Robespierre – Lawyer who developed the terrorism. Difference between constitutional and revolutionary govt. Preserve the individual, in constitutional government. To defend the citizens against govt. in Revolutionary govt, protect the Constitutional govt against usurpers. People must serve the revolution. In peace, virtue is the foundation of govt. Virtue and Terror the foundation of revolutionary govt. so terrorism is an extension of virtue. Those who doubted him were executed.

“Basically, peace, but temporary terrorism is useful” Natural goodness of man given. But the terrorism continued.

1794, July 24 – Robespierre himself executed.

In 19th Century:

Event seen as the natural outcome of popular democracy. Eventual growth of “Revolutionaries” in Europe – Marxists, Democrats, Anarchists. Majority of revolutionaries admired the Reign of Terror, but looked at it as failure.

The period of the Jacobins alive as a model. Neo-Jacobins.

The Anarchists – an attitude which rejects the state. Reject enforcement. Humans born free. Socialist bent, end result different than communism.

Anarchism is a lifestyle. Bakunin the guru of left wing movement in the 19th century. Russian intelligentsia was influenced by enlightenment, came from nobility.

In the 1840s, the spring of nations. Western Europe, Eastern Europe. Bakunin was involved in some; a “revolutionary type”. Finally sent to Russian prison after being sent back to Russia by the Germans. Marx, Engels also quite active then.

Nothing in Anarchist theory that adopts terrorism. Discovered the Neo-Jacobins. Liked the suitability of terrorism, the key to freedom. Complete equality. Only possible without government. Next time #3


Reading #2
MARCH 20, 1990

I. Christian persecution. Flight from Aleppo and Damascus, 1860, 1850, under Ottoman Empire.
II. Christian missionary schools. Revived Arabic. Most in Beirut.
III. Christian patriotism basis for Arab nationalism later.
IV. Opposition to Turks rule by Arabs in 1850. No respect for Turkish authority. Wanted freedom.



Anarchist Theory, late 1800s Europe. Names associated with anarchy:

Peter Kropotkin
Elisee Raclus
Jean Grave
Machael Bakunin
Enrico Malatesta
Johann Most
Emma Goldman
Alexander Berkman
Johann Must

I. Propaganda by deed

Italy, April 1877, Benevento Affair, stimulating, educating the masses.

II. Kropotkin 1879: Anarchist ideas should be spread by action.
III. Anarchists in 1870s were separate group in the “anti-authoritarians.”
IV. July 11, 1892, Ravachol, anarchist martyr. Set precedent. The attentats.



Transcripts of Syrian news
BBC Monitoring Service Part IV
FBIS Daily Report

Mid-19th Century – 1840, blood libels in Damascus. Anti-Semitism began resembling European Anti-Semitism.

1860 crisis. Lebanese autonomy under Ottomans.

Fighting by Christian/Druze because of religion, Muslim vs. non-Muslim; economic trade in hands of non-Muslims, as was tax collection; Christians exempt from taxes.

1831 Muhammad Ali conq. In 1839. Christian reforms, Muslim abolition of tax system.

1850s, 1860s Damascus Zealousness

Druze were hostile to Christians, Jews, 1860s, Damascus flooded by Christian refugees from Lebanon. Great time of indecision for Syrians. Christians were seen as collaborators with the Europeans.

Ulama – plural of alim. Majhs in local council were to lead the provinces using civil servants, but ulama took over the majlis. Majlis had own tax system controlled.

Waqf Tribe – formal owner of a property is God, proceeds go to Islam community after “manager’s” death. Ulama captured much of this property unlawfully. Mufti of Jerusalem used this money to finance the Arab Revolt of 1930s

Ulama did not want equal rights with Muslims and Jews/Christians.

Sharif of Mecca, family of descendants of Mohammed. Ulama. If the ulama in Damascus wanted new state formed, Ulama ruler the best. Preferably the Sharif of Mecca in 1858.

Process of modernization in Syria in mid-1800s.


1) Muslim fundamentalism against the Ottomans.
2) Ottoman nationalism
3) Arab nationalism, result of different political system in Syria

Cultural clubs started springing Arab nationalism. Pan Arabism.


MARCH 22, 1990

Usually, people whose lives are tolerable generally don’t need myths. People whose lives are troubled take more easily to myths. Positive, negative myths. PLO negative myth. U.S. Constitution a positive myth.

The Anarchists created the myth of terrorism. Fascists, Nazis invented myths to meet certain goals.

Anarchists actually used a minimum of violence, but the myth was carried off.

Sergei Nechaev ( Nacháyev) born in Russia, lower middle class, idealistic, criminal. 1866 – Czar Alexander II assassination attempt influenced him. Neo-Jacobin influence. With Bakunin, wrote little revolutionary thesis. Small document talks about the ideal life of the revolutionary, his character, his actions and emotions. Dehumanization element of terrorism outlined here. Excludes private vendettas, romanticism, written in Switzerland. Nechaev tried afterward to follow his own advice and spent the rest of his life in prison.

Paris Commune – the creation of a revolutionary commune in Paris. 1871 war between France/Germany. France lost. Socialists took over Paris afterward. Brought down by intense fights. Became the great myth of Anarchists.

Italian Anarchists: Propaganda by deed. Initial Socialist inspiration.

Dynamite was very useful to terrorism. Strong connection between technology and Socialist theory – “man’s progress tied to technology.”

“Dynamite is Democratic.” Most, anarchist.

French Anarchism of the 1880s. Intellectual groups in France. Center of Anarchist fermentation. Darwinian Survival flavor.

Declassé – unemployed by highly educated group. In fact, declassed.

Assassination cases of day: Ravashol, May 1, 1890. Mayday, French police put down protests brutally.

March 11, 1891 – Judge’s apt. blown up. “Wanted to terrorize the French,” Ravashol.

For oppressed –

1893, Dec. 9 – Vallant, threw bomb at French Parliament. Haunted by the idea of assassination.

June 24, 1894 – President of France assassinated by young Anarchist. Previous evening, an anarchist was executed. Even Anarchists of the day said it was too much.

European Anarchism tied to idea of revolution, terrorism was fighting the beginning of the Marxists as well.


Perception of nationhood different in Eastern Europe. Emphasis on national minorities, violent. No democratic tradition.

1878, Romania gained independence, but was autocratic. Political tendency toward nationalism.

America: Acquired characteristics, choice

Eastern Europe: Ethnicity criteria, barriers

Judeo-Phobia, Baldwin, “An American Abroad”

“Born in America” barrier

Ethnicity barrier.

Immigration Laws:

1) Foreigners encouraged; America
2) Law of return: Jews/Germans (ethnic concept). “No German may be deprived of the right to return to Germany” – 1949. Homogeneous nation-state.

Pg 19-24 work next time “American Perception”.

MARCH 25, 1880

Came to power Nov. 1970

Ba’ath party: Came to power 1963. Founded 1947 by two Damascus schoolteachers. In 1950, Akram Hourani joined, bringing army officers.


Study past tense
Pages 88
Page 89: 5,4,3

[handwritten characters in Hebrew on this page of notes]

MARCH 26, 1990

Russian Revolutionary Movement in America

Most moved to the U.S. along with huge waves of European immigrants. Turn of century, industrial revolution period. Few rights for workers. 1870s high unemployment. Riots, protests brutally suppressed. Major event: Haymarket Affair 1886, May 4, Chicago. Protest against Mayday violence.

Police tried to stop speaker from speaking. Bomb thrown. Police fired. Both sides injured. Chicago in pandemonium. Police arrested 9 anarchist leaders. Four sentenced to death, 4 to prison. Private owners had almost tyrannical power. Perpetrators of most violence. Labor movement began adopting these methods. Dynamite was used by Union members. No great ideology, simple, limited goals.

In the U.S., simple goal of destroying certain capitalist centers.

Organized crime in U.S. used such methods. Unions hired organized crime thugs, since they had a common enemy. In the 1890s, anarchism died down. Terrorism declined.

Russian Terrorism:

Narodniya Volia – Model of Idealistic Terrorism. Active roughly four years. Much notoriety gained. Best, brightest in Russia involved. Popular. Many were Jews. Many of these Jews came to Israel. Lehi cherished the “…Volia” tradition.

Started within the populist movement in the mid-1800s. Russian intellectual Alexander Herzen; disappointed in revolutionary movement. They hoped help would come from the West. Herzen developed an alternative Socialist analysis. Said Russia did not have to wait for Capitalism to “develop” for a revolution. Mir – Russian village in these areas, already widespread communist potential. Russian nobles owned these communes. His argument was to arm the peasants, introduce socialism. Don’t need the Western Europeans. Vision of a better society. This was the populist movement idea. There was already a communal idea present in Russian Culture. So the early ideas did not really change Russia.

Most of populist movement was idealistic. Not easily prone to violence. 1874, populist movement undertook idea of intellectuals talking to peasants; unheard of! The March to the People; great disappointment. Peasants were – well – STUPID. Social order was fine with the peasants. Many populists were jailed, as well.

After this great, comic failure, a few adopted terrorism.

1874 – 1879, many revolutionary incidents. Narodniya Volia born. Law of Center concept. Assassinate Czar and his friends.

MARCH 26, 1990


1900-1920, nationalism. Intellectuals knew they needed wide support. 120 activists, roughly, who had access to mediums of communication. Small group. In first and second decade, no Syrian structure for reform. So they found Sharif Husayn b Cali. Had religious, national legitimacy, legal legitimacy from Ottomans, British 1908, was nominated Sharif of Mecca. The powers wanted him to hold their own legitimate power. British wanted to avoid a Jihad against the Christians (British Christians).

In 1911, the British held off on contacts with Sharif because war was coming and they didn’t want to give potential bargaining booty to Sharif if it was needed for European powers.

Where was the Arab Homeland the nationalists wanted?

Documents: 1) Husayn/McMahon correspondence
1) Sykes-Picot agreement

In Britain’s Public Records Office, documents are unavailable until a period of time has passed. Did the British have anything to hide in number 1? This is the first time Syria was discussed as a separate entity. 5 letters from each side, ‘till 1916, March. Sharif wanted all of “Arab Homeland”. British wanted a special status. British defined Syria as roughly the shape it is today…..

Start in marked area of notebook next typing session…… #

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Photo by Lurene of the 1990 class notebook.

Lurene's email in 2014:


After 1916, Brit., French, Russians Apr – Oct 1916 exchanged letters.

(Sharif under impression that he would control, dole out booty) Sharif wanted his own Hashemite Kingdom.

Sykes-Picot Agreement made public by Russians (Lenin Govt.). Syria the perfect concession for the allies of the British – not very valuable to the British.

Oct. 1915, British realized it would pay the French in Syrian Currency. Syria was important to French for historic, economic reasons. Wanted a Sea Route. British viewed Syria was less costly alternative.

Zone A – French influence
Zone B – French direct rule (Lebanon)

Clear definition of which parts would have which status. British continued to mislead both parties.

1918 – Faisal b. Husayn enters Damascus as first of British Units to enter Syria. Strengthened British chicanery. Declared King. Oct.

Now, Middle East officially divided. Iraq under British as was Transjordan, Palestine.

Syria under French. Internal aspects not important. British just wanted parts, oil, holy places, diplomatic duality.

Sept. 1918 – British pull out of Syria.

April 1920 – League of Nations approve British, French mandates.

July 1920 – Maysalun, final battle between French, Syrian. Faisal went to exile. Now, Maysalun a Syrian national symbol. Still commemorates.

- First struggle of Arab character on Syria

- Mandates. What did French want? What was Faisal’s mission? To forge first part of independent Middle East. Wanted Syria to be lynchpin. But he looked at the Middle East from British view, not French view.

- January 1919. Paris Conference. Faisal said he was only interested in Syria. This, of course, against French interests. Faisal knew the facts, but neglected the French factor. Trusted the British too much. But Faisal talked about British promises, did not mention correspondence, talked about U.S. President Wilson’s “self-determination” beliefs.



On Mandates: Article 22 of Covenant of League of Nations: “tutelage of such peoples should be entrusted to advanced nations as Mandatories on behalf of the League.”

“A Mandatories”: Palestine, Transjordan, Mesopotamia (Iraq), Syria (includes Lebanon), considered on their way to independence.

B and C: Overseas possessions of Germany in Africa and Oceania.

San Remo Conference, April 1920, decided distribution of Mandatories.

May 1926: Lebanon becomes republic w/constitution

French still control defense. Foreign affairs. Right to Veto.

June 1941 – Syria, Lebanon occupied by British, Free French forces ousting Vichy France.

Jan 1944 – Syria throws off mandatory

1945-1946 – French, British withdraw troops.


French intentions during mandate:


• Opposing, weakening Arab nationalism
• Strengthen Christian, Alawis, Kurds
• Strengthen Lebanon


• Need to build up strength of France
• Compete Great Britain
• Delay, curtail independence movements
• Bad example of Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930
• Fear of chain reaction in French possession in North Africa

French established several indigenous governments:

• Greater Lebanon Aug. 1920
• Alawis “State”, July 1922
• Druze, March 1921 (Jebel Druze)
• Aleppo and Damascus, Sept 1920 including the Sanjaq

1922 Federation failed. Modern Syria and Lebanon eventually emerged after WWII



Situation in 1914:

• Arab nationalists who hated Turks
• Christians who wanted French help in Lebanon
• French interest in Catholic, Christian elements. Mediterranean power
• British, Indian routes for oil
• Zionists: practical and political
• Weakening Ottomans (Turkey)

• Sharif Hussein: organize an Arab revolt for British against Turks. Hussein/McMahon letters 1915

• 1917 Balfour Declaration

• Sykes-Picot Agreement, may 16, 1916

• 1918 Wilson’s 14 points

• 1918 – Oct, WWI comes to Damascus, Famine, Turk oppression

After War

• French did not recognize correspondence between British, Hussein. Hostility toward France.
• Amir Faisal in 1919 conference. Informal agreement w/Zionist Weizmann.
• British pulled out: Anglo-French Agreement, Sept. 1919
• March 20, 1920: Faisal crown of Syria, Palestine, by Syrians. British, French reject this. Immediately after, the San Remo Conference.
• After Arab revolt against French, Faisal flees. 1920, July 25, Maisalun.


• Lost Ottomans, Mandatory established through Syria-Colonial rule to them;
• Divided
• Jewish Zionism
• Anti-French feeling as French Mandate began


MARCH 28, 1990

arm…yad, plural…yadim

[Note: these Hebrew class notes only available with original notebook. – Lurene, Dec. 2009]

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Karl Marx photo from Wikipedia.

Class at The Hebrew University in Jerusalem in 1990 focused much on Syrian history.

Lurene's email in 2014:


SYRIA – MARCH 28, 1990

1870s – 1880s – Sector of intellectuals in Syria. Reacted to Ottomans in Syria. Westernization, language, brutality.

“We are Arabs,” to Turks.
“We are Moslems,” to Europeans.

1918 to 1920 – Faisal in Syria Jan. 1919. Faisal gave up demands for all territories except Syria. “Arabistan” meant abrogating hundreds of treaties for the British and Tribal leaders. Arabs in Palestine opposed the mandate. Faisal liked idea of mandate and had friction w/nationalists, because of this.

French did not want Arab Hatred. Had North African interests. Sent advisors.

U.S. said 1916 agreement null and void, including Armenia, Iraq, Palestine, Syria.

King – Crane Commission August 1919 visited area and suggested American Suzerainity. Stupid, since America was isolationist. Clause that maybe, otherwise, back to British.

Sept. 1919, British pull out, leaving French and Arab nationalists to fight.
Faisal agreed to French control over coastal areas, let French “guide” policy, allow neutral zone between leb, Syria. Nationalists refused to ratify this, in March 1920, declared independence of Syria instead. May 1920, nationalists declare war on French.

July 14, 1920. Clash begins. Maysalun. No more Hashemite Kingdom in Syria. Less than 2 years of independent Syria. #

MARCH 29, 1990

[note: Hebrew characters of original notes not here]

Kadoor-kadoorim pills
Lukahat to take
Meta bed
Leshecov to lay down
Bate holim hospital
Lahiote to be
Bria well
Nola sick
Margeesh feel
Lemargeesh to feel
Tsamhonee vegetarian
Tsamonit vegetarians

Pg.94 homework, 90, 91, 92, 93 due Wednesday
No class Monday

MARCH 29, 1990

[50 % of grade
midterm after vacation
after item #9 on list
hour ½
1 essay/50%
5 out of 7 terms
3 pages
half a page specific
completing 4
finished 5
starting 6]

Terrorism to bring down Czar in Russia. Terrorism the peak of radicalization pattern in all cases. Terrorists are not crazy, sane, but may be driven by political conditions. [?] of a radical group, can’t tell who a terrorist will be.

1878, Zasulitz shoots commander in St. Petersburg. Student radical. General Trepor wounded only, but important symbolically. 1879 Narodnya Voliya formed, adopts revolutionary platform, blows the top of Social pyramid! Terrorism adopted as strategy.

Norod. Voliya tried to bring an end to Russian oppression. Mainly the Central Committee. Were democrats, did not have the “catechism” idea, Nechayev’s ideas, felt guilty. Became cultural heroes. Idealistic Terrorism. Czar Alexander II assassinated finally, but N. Voliya broken up in (1881?).

N. Voliya also underestimated govt., upper class strength. By 1882, very few. 1884, N. Voliya finished. Major blow to populist movement. Made a psychological contribution to Russian Revolution.

In the short run, N. Voliya failed, but made great strides in changing the perception of authority in Russia. “The Emp is naked!”

Alexander Ulianov, elder brother of Lenin, liked N. Voliya. Was executed for his own activities. Influenced Lenin.

Once the regime was down, Bolsheviks were more brutal toward idealistic/Terrorist groups.

N. Voliya, many Jews. Total sacrifice. Morality central to them. Mindful of consequences. Practiced individual terrorism, not mass terrorism. Not indiscriminate. Usually a high civilian official. Limited terrorism which is aware of the moral problem, consequences. Narodraya Voliya at the top of “morality” stick in terrorism. “The left feels guilty and they have to explain,” in contrast to right-wing terrorists, who don’t feel as guilty. They don’t feel an explanation is necessary.

Lehi, although very rightist, cherished the N. Voliya. Shamir glorified terrorism in his writings. Lehi called themselves “terrorists” because, viewing N. Voliya, looked at it as virtuous.

Marxist Approach to Terrorism

Marx, Engels did not really like the idea of Terrorism. Hostile to terrorism. Social transformation was the goal of classical Marxism. Economic transform. Real revolution is when a new class takes over. Must be political. Did not like terrorism because he thought – Marx – it was unuseful toward any real social, political transformation. England, France, Germany were the nations of which he was speaking, countries which were producing large numbers of workers because of highly developed capitalism.

To Marx, Engels terrorism too distracting to workers. Bitter toward terrorism. But he did not reject the practice on occasion, like during a revolution. The ideology – propaganda by deed – was bullshit to him.

On Jacobins, “an immature move”, in the French Revolution – “Revolution of the Middle Class”. Marx was very angry at Bakunin, Marx, Engels. Laughed at Anarchists.

Also spoke @ Irish Terrorism. Did not take it seriously.

MARCH 29, 1990

1. Jewish national consciousness holds a territorial tie to Eratz Israel (Genesis 17:2 Joshua 5:10)
2. The Arab national consciousness also holds a territorial tie to Eratz Israel (Koran: The confederated 33:26 pg 292) tribes.

Book: P.J. Vatikiah’s “Islam and the State”; Harkabi “Arab and Jew”

For Monday: Pg 116 PLO Charter, 123-125 Shipler

UMMA = Nation = Community of Believers

Joshua led the Jews into Cannan 1,250 B.C. Passover for 3,500 years.

Islam: “masters of the land”. 627, Jerusalem conquered by Islam.

Chapter in Koran on Jews: The Family of Imkam 3;110 – image of Jew as Coward and Evil-doer
Two competing ethnic conceptions of the nation.
Both oriented toward past.


Russian Revolutionaries

Government totally detached from Social Structures, they said. “You get a revolution, but not a socialist revolution.” The only time Marxists backed terrorism.

Lenin and Trotsky were orthodox Marxists. Were opposed to terrorism because they did not think it was useful to a true Marxist Revolution. Heated debate between Lenin and the “Social Revolutionaries.” Lenin said they were not serious, they were adventurers. Were losing touch with the people. Plus, Lenin said, you are always on the run; in no position to foster revolutionary consciousness within the people. Must have constant contact with the people, must educate them.

Intellectual Terrorism – Lenin’s alternative. Liked Jacobins.

Trotsky – Before revolution in early 20s. Communism and Terrorism, wrote book. Before rev., was critical of Narodnya Voliya and identified them, at the same time, as the gap between the Czarist regime and the people.

White Army was the army against Bolsheviks. Campaign of terror included the elimination of social revolutionaries, by Bolsheviks. Interventionists were separate from the Russian White Army, which was against the Red Army.

Trotskey said no fundamental difference between terrorism and war because in both you kill few to terrorize many. Terrorism as a symbol not Marxist theory.

Third World Marxism

This ends discussion of leftist terrorism.

Right Wing Terrorism –

George Sorel – cross between classical Marxism and modern Fascism. At least part of the intellectual, Fascist right had roots in Marxism.

Reflections of Violence, by Sorel. A disappointed Marxist. It was clear to him that Marxist theory did not work. What bothered him was that it was deterministic. Millions of people thought the future was theirs in the 19th Century, then were disappointed. It was clear that both sides did not behave according to Marxist thought. Sorel thought the Bg needed revitalization because they had become more accommodating with the workers.

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Photo by Lurene, Egypt in 1990

MARCH 1990

Lurene's email in 2014:

APRIL 2, 1990

(See prof in 309 after class on Wednesday
Papers due 6 of June. Typed 15 double-spaced pages.)

Two-year reign of Faisal in Syria. How important was the period of Faisal?

Represented a political duality because he was a Hashemite. First legitimate Arab nationalist leader.

Arabization under Faisal – Turkish to Arabic
Mandate was a new innovation.

Supposed to start nations toward independence. No real teeth for enforcement. Syria had a “direct” mandatory – mid to high level posts. French.

Came on heels of Arab nationalist movement.

First national struggle 1925 in Syria. Druze. National revolt against French.

Druze not Muslims. 11th Century separation from Islam. Tradition of living in remote areas. Pay less taxes and better for wars. Hide their feelings if it will protect them, but rebelled against French in 1925.

Mashaikh – leaders of Druze. Angered with French. French did not realize legitimacy of the Mashaikh. Used Druze to serve French military system. Also, Sultan of al-Atrash (supreme leader of the Druze) was insulted, his home invaded.

APRIL 4, 1990

Under French, Lebanon, Syria divided, dismembered. Old divide and rule trick.

1) Allepo
2) Damascus
3) Jabel Druze
4) Lebanon
5) Alawite

Latikiya capital of Alawite territory
Jazira – East of Euphrates in Syria

French gave druze a degree of independence, but there was a collaborative level

1925 – Druze rebellion. Added with other rebellions, it turned into a full-blown hostility against French.

Question: What was the last straw for the Syrians regarding French rule?

Added territories, economic structure changed because of border adjustments, French favoritism toward Christians, French dumped products on Syrians, contributing to inflation and glut. Composed forces of Druze and Alawites, but not muslims.

Most of the Army at time busy in Morocco, so existing force in Syria was very brutal.

In shadows, Amir Abdullah, British. British may have helped support the revolt with Abdullah. Main centers of fighting were secluded areas, another reason why it lasted for two years. 1925 contributed to the identity of Druze, Alawites as “Syrians”. Hence another step toward Syrian nationalism.

Ghuta Valley of Damascus – where very poor lived. They joined.

Jizira – Bedoins joined, who lost income for caravans. Started attacking military convoys.

Everyone had very different interests. In 1936, French added Druze area back to main Syria.

In Alawite state, French in 1936 reattached (Latakia) to Syria. 1939 separated. 1942 reattached.

Q – Why is the small natural port in South Turkey – Alexandretta – so important?

Good strategic natural port. Dispute on who majority was – Turk or Arab. Turkey in 1920, 1921 fighting for its existence.

In 1921, given to French by Turks for special favors for local population.

In 1935, Syrian said they wanted the Hatai returned. Turks wanted an independent state there.

League said “compromise with independent state”. State bi-national. The national Assembly in 1939 accepted annexation from Turkey. French acknowledged this. But this was a major violation of the mandatory. But on the eve of the war, a non-issue.

1922, French nominate first Syrian Cabinet. Seen as collaborators by nationalists. Faisal, to them, represented legitimacy.

After 1927, Dr. abd al Rahman Shahbandar and Sultan al atrash. New national leadership. Two new political parties: Istiklal (independence, no separate Syria, supporters of Faisal). Sha’b (for fighting the French only in Syria, young, active, less pan-Arab)

These two parties seen as collaborators

Still be nationalists, French wanted a constitution that recognized Syria, but also the mandate. And that’s what they did in 1930 (article 116)

1932, Iraqui independence from British

1932-33, Egyptians negotiate with British for independence.

Syrian (1933-34) begin negotiations with French. Since France was about to enter war, it was too expensive to support Syria.

French politics, in 3rd republic, did not favor colonies.

National Front Govt signed with Syria in Nov of 1936. Effective Nov. 1939, modeled after Irqui model. French kept forces there. Did not include Lebanon.

New Syrian Parliament overwhelming nationalist. But disappointed in 37, 38 when French hesitated to ratify agreement. In 1938, agreement blew off by French. WWII dominant factor.

Two reactions by Syrians: Anti-French, anti-Syrian negotiators. In 1939, the political system in upheaval. Now, movement against both.

Naturally, British and French very unpopular. So they were pro-German, pro-Nazi.

French took over Syria again.

May 1990, Germans in Turkey. High Commissioner in Syria (French) declared loyalty to pro-Nazi Vichy Govt. in France.

June of ’41, Syria liberated by Free French Forces. (Moshe Dyan lost his eye in that battle).

Asad – Maoz, “Sphynx”
Seale, Patrick
Ex: Asad’s Foreign Policy

APRIL 5, 1990
1. Last week’s assi. Reading 36,39
2. Deutscher pg. 39; CHRR 35-38

[Why the rejection of nationalism after World War II]

Simulation Game: The Decision Making Process:

Q: Can Jews and Arab-Palestinians find a way to share the land

1) The players: Jews in Israel, USA; Palestinians in West Bank, East Jerusalem, deportees; U.S. Administration – Baker
2) Proposed 1947 Plan of Partition: Sadat formula, pg 137 in book

Distinctive Characteristics of Palestinians

1) Collective will, expresses self-definition
2) Refugee national assimilation by Jordan (1950)
3) Common Sense of Destiny (perceive ’48 war as catastrophe, will to return)
4) Common folklore, (Abu Amar – Yassir Arafat) Distinctive of Jews

Distinctive Characteristics of Jews

1) Pursuit of peace – Jewish philosophy
2) Needs peace in a practical way
3) Exodus 23:9 Thou shalt not oppress the stranger
4) Jerimiah 22:4 Do not violence to the stranger


Q: What political factors work in favor of Sadat’s plan.
Q: Could both parties accept plan? American Jews, administration, holders of balance.

In 1979, Sadat overcame basic Islamic perceptions: Dar el Islam, idea of jihad, Khartoum conference of 1967 (no recognition, no peace, no negotiation).

Whose Diplomacy would be appropriate today?

Moses – Threats, Brinkmanship
Joshua – 100 years war
Aaron – Plebiscite, follower of public opinion

• assignment option instead of nationalism assignment.


#6 – PG 62-64

I. Germany invades Poland Sept. 1, 1939

• Sept. 3, England, France declare war on Germany
• Iraq, Egypt tied to Britain by treaty – territorial use in war
• Saudis: No agreement but Britain’s fleet controlled Red Sea, Persian Gulf. Britain also had air bases in Iraq, Egypt, Arden.

II. Arab states with Britain, but not very enthusiastically.
III. France stationed army in Syria and Lebanon under Gen. Weygand

• Britain had troops in Palestine, Egypt
• Iraq: had oil, next to Iranian oil fields, route via Persian Gulf to Palestine overland – main line in war from India to Egypt and Turkey.
• October ’39, Britain, France treaty with Turks for allied war effort if needed
• Oil outlets in pipeline from Iraq were in Haifa and Tripoli’s in Syria. Haifa had a refinery
• Need for large force in Mid-East motivated by fear of Italian invasion from Libya, internal Arab disorders

IV. British feared German attack of Balkans, so mid-East gained more importance
V. French wanted to create more fronts to lure Germans from Western front, esp. Gen. Gamelin. Weygand in the levant wanted Balkan Front. But the Soviet-Finnish War made mid-east more practical
VI. France and England planned hostile measures against Russia from Turkey. Attempted to revive 1937 Saad – Abad Treaty between Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq. Troops, most French in area, but Allied commanders rejected all action in the Balkans.

Syria and Lebanon (Levant)

• High Commissioner Puaux suspends Syrian constitution before war broke.
• Suspends Lebanese Constitution on Sept. 21, concentrates power in Lebanese cabinet and Sec. of State Bayhum and his French advisors
• Communists, pro-fascists (Syrian National Party) outlawed
• German-financed Arab-Nationalist Club in Damascus closed.
• Communist, nationalist leaders imprisoned.
• The main nationalists (National Bloc) and Dr. Shahbandar’s groups activities “limited.”
• loyalty to France out of fear.
• Distrust of Allies following cession of Alexandretta to Turkey in 1936-1939.
• In previous world war, hunger, terror, epidemics. Fear of war

[pg 173-192 Germany and the Syrian Campaign, continued on…]

APRIL 23, 1990

Right Wing Terrorism –

1) Revolutionary Terrorism
2) The aggrieved Right, reaction to left not radical or ideological
3) Vigilante Terrorism – Restoring law and order. Not revolutionaries. See themselves as fulfilling law/governmental function
4) Racist Right – feel threatened by certain groups

Misperception that terrorism is from left – because rightists avoid the media.

Fascists are not popular since the war. The left, in general, feels guilt.

Rightists espouse “survival of the fittest” and don’t write books to explain their ideologies.

Leftists often behave the same, but speak the language of the left.

Scholars, for many years, rejected Fascism as not worth studying. Not a “doctrine”, like Marx wrote, but had an intellectual, cultural viewpoint.

• Construction of a new civilization
• Creative use of violence
• Dynamism
• Anti-Boug. Capitalism
• Anti-democracy, parliamentary
• Pro-Avante-Garde
• Total totalitarian system, not seen as negative then. Penetrates all spheres of individual life

Late 1800s, Socialists taking root in Europe. They said war was the business of the capitalists, for the poor to fight. Socialists were sure the poor workers would not fight. Thought they were class-conscious first, before nationalistic.

In 1914, August, WWI broke. Workers were loyal to respective countries. Major slap to Socialist theory. Philosophical disaster. Mussolini, in fact, turned from Socialism. Said the idea of the Nation was more important.

1914 created the social, political climate for fascism to grow.

Italian political sociology was developing at turn of century:

Micnels, Mosca, Poreto – studied 1900 democracy

Italians said, even in democracy, few get to top. Few remain at top. Pure democracy non-existent. Elites still control everything, and this is the natural order of things. Developed a normative theory. “Why talk about democracy?”

Also took Darwin’s theories and said only the fittest “ought to survive.”

Politics, policies best left to intuition. The leader (NAZI theory) should be a composite of the nation.

Tempista – person with perfect timing. Only the genius knows the moment – has the intuition.

Politics is the “superior activity” of LEADERS, fascists said. Vertical concept of politics – evolves from above. Does not flow from society. Intertwined with struggle and conflict.

MEANS in fascist thinking always justify ENDS. Violence inseparable from politics.

1) Ideological enemies of fascists suffered terrorism – like leftists
2) Race – directed terrorism. Usually applied against “inferior” groups. Conducted selectively. (leftist terrorism usually against the regime)
3) Considered terrorism proper method after a coup. Usually eliminate their enemies. Sponsored-terrorism by the new state, to keep people under constant terror. Use of terrorism against other regimes.


Had practical, historical roots. Called “Terrorism is practice”.

In Europe at that time, anarchy, chaos result of collapse of political system.

Infrastructure for democracy in Germany was not there. Communism was feared. Economic crisis. Total insecurity which helped foster morality crisis. Fricoor – small armies of several commanders, unemployed, who never accepted defeat. “Stab in the back” myth. So Weimar Republic started out on bad leg.

This created a climate of political violence all around. Communists, Armies, fascists, street violence. Coup idea popular.

S.A. – Storm Troopers
S.S. – Security Guards

Typical, classical terror organizations. S.A. made up of thugs from the tri-coor to disturb socialists and other enemies. Known as the brown-shirts. Private Army of impoverished people. Lived in a semi-military fashion. Roehm was the commander. Roehm member of Hitler’s party.

Hitler couldn’t trust the S.A. – too oriented toward socialism and Hitler NEEDED the rich.

So in 1925, he created the S.S., as a personal guard of the leader. Had each to swear allegiance to Hitler. Himmler in command. Given special tasks. Very carefully selected – egotistic and racist. Insisted on blind obedience. Socially, they came from upper-classes. Many were low-ranking officers of the Kaiser army. Ready to commit every act. So when in 1933 Hitler took power, he ordered S.A. eliminated, with Roehm. Afterwards, S.S. people entrusted with regulation of country and the military. With the Gestapo, the S.S. were in charge of internal state terrorism.

Distinction between terrorism and genocide.

 Terrorism kills few, terrifies many. Means of control.
 Genocide does not “send messages”. Simply kills people; fear and political meaning not important. Cambodia, Germany. Paranoia motivated.#

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Propaganda photo depicts German soldiers (under Hitler regime) being happily welcomed by Soviet civilians in 1941 during Nazi invasion of U.S.S.R.

Terrorists and dictatorial regimes depend heavily on media to keep their target populations calm and confused. That is, their own populations and other populations. Photo found on Wikipedia, but is part of today's German Archive.

Lurene's email in 2014:

APRIL 23, 1990

• Papers due first week of June

Lebanon 1920-1929 and WWII Period

1850-1861; 1914-1920 – Lebanon’s special status. First period of Syrian border.

British created Lebanon, semi-autonomous, with excuse of “saving” Christians. French in 1920 also were concerned, morally, politically, strategically, with Lebanon. Maronites wanted a greater Lebanon, then Beirut was not included. They wanted defense guarantees, as well.

August, 1920. Lebanese borders changed, expanded. Added the UPPER GALLILEE. This territory was mostly Shi’ite. Also added, Sunni area of Tripoli’s (port). To East, the Bekka Valley, Shi’ite and Sunni-French wanted to keep Christian majority. Whole sectarian structure changed.

1932 – 53% Christian 47% Muslim. (6.3% Druze, 6.3% Shi’ites)

1) Why did the French create Lebanon?
2) What is Lebanese nationalism?

Contradicting strains of nationalism. European, Christian wedge in Arab lands.

1926 – First Lebanese Constitution imposed by French. Article 95 speaks about proportional representation in the constitution. To this day it’s relevant.

1943 – Lebanon becomes independent.

But system, electoral, was reflection of 1932 census results. No proportion to representation. So, to conclude, the Lebanese nationalism expresses a certain oneness w/ Syria.

1936 – Agreement. Syria agreed Lebanon is separate entity. This was the French CONDITION for granting Syria independence. From Syrian view, imposed agreement. From Lebanese view, no clear movement to become part of Syria → PPS – popular Syria Party formed 1936 by Antun Sa’adah, Christian Lebanese.

Tried to form national movement to unify Syria, Lebanese under secular, fascist govt.

From the first day, Lebanese “identity” crisis.

→ Syria as an object for outside Activity 1936 on → two or three outside powers who did not really recognize Syrian independence: Iraq, Transjordan – both ruled by Hashemite rulers. Saudi Arabia the third power.

Why Saudis? Wanted no religious rival centers. Wanted control of Damascus. Dispute with Hashemites in J. and Iraq. Arab legitimacy out of Damascus – Saudi’s wanted control.

1936 – with arab revolt, emergence of two poles in mid-east. Saudi’s also wanted to fight the “Western enemy” through the only independent country in region. Wanted “throne”.

1936 – Abdullah in Transjordan wanted Syria – Jordan entity UNDER Jordanian crown. Abdullah meddled.

But Syrians:

1) No French/British dispute
2) British investment in Syria
3) Jordanians did not want to appear imperialistic

British did not want Germans in Region, so wanted quiet.

1939, Abdullah again wanted Syria for his Kingdom.

Abdullah’s reasons:

1) Free from French
2) Deserved a king
3) Unite Arab world under Hashemites
4) Also, wanted Holy sites under Hashemites

Saudis appealed to British to help with Abdullah.

British did not know that Hashemites were not well-loved by nationalists.

Saudi prince should become king of Syria – British, Germany said.

Dec. 1940 – Vichy regime takes Syria. Did not have any use for an independent Syria.

British really wanted Syria back in 1939, to enjoy pre-war I dominance. They said, if not the Saudis, then an Egyptian Prince, backed by Saudis and unprovoking of Hashemites.

Abdullah, exasperated, sold arms to Druze in Syria to gain influence. Hoped they would rebel against French. French knew very well what was going on. Knew British intelligence was in Druze area of Syria.

Abdullah was turned down flat on Syria.


I. Germany and the Syrian Campaign

• Rashid Ali Govt in Iraq collapses, Nazis withdraw
• Germans still on North African front
• German’s left Manteuffel’s liaison group in Syria over Vichy’s objections
• Syria under Vichy France, but not completely with the Axis. Italian control commission there, as well.

II. Axis Activity in Syria Depended on Franco-German Relations

• Paris Protocols – German-French agreements. French said these agreements were in Germany’s interest, since any agreement could aggravate Franco-Anglo relations.
• Weygand, Boisson (French) talk with Germans @ protocols 1941, June. France wanted from Germany:

1) Restoration of French sovereignty over France, except where German troops stationed.
2) Special status for Alsace-Lorraine until conclusion of Peace Treaty
3) Gradual release of war prisoners
4) Reduction of occupation costs
5) German public statement renouncing claims on Syria, North and West Africa
6) Abolition of control commissions in Africa or their weakening

 Hitler hints to Darlan, May 11, that German concessions to France must not weaken Germany

• British imperial and Free French troops to France’s mandated territories June 8, nulling any serious talks.

Nazi intentions/foundations late Spring, Summer of 1941

• Lack of trust, aversion to French Vichy govt.
• Alliance with Italy had claims on France, also obstacle to Franco-German relations
• Nazis did not believe French-English clash would occur
• Nazis hoped U.S.S.R. attack would erase their need for such compromises.
• Actually, after fall of Iraq, Germans wanted to withdraw to keep British out. (Germans were fighting there)

→ Germans used restraint in Syria, but Syrian troops had Gaullist sympathies, mainly. Allies feared German control of the Levant, so British and Free France launched operation “Exporter” on June 8. German’s pull back, not wanting to meddle in Vichy France, British conflict.

But Germans pressured Vichy to uphold strong effort. Vichy France did not want to anger Germans, because they controlled metropolitan France.

 Germany, after more talks, agrees to help Vichy France by bombing North Palestine, Alexandria, Haifa on British troops, ships, as France requests. But they don’t go all out on this.
 Germans wanted airport, airstrip in Syria. French say no.

June 22, 1941 Hitler invades Russia.

After June 22, 1941, French quit relying on German support. Vichy France took negative view of German help, anyway, because it was afraid of French troops in Syria and American’s reaction. Didn’t want British attack on North African French possessions, either.




Abdullah wanted to take over Syria. Why? Who would help – the British. But British did not want to control Syria through Abdullah. They backed the Iraqui Hashemites. They wanted Hashemites on their side, but not a commitment.

Iraqui attitude on Syria

• Since 1936, thought of themselves as superior to arab states.
• Independent in 1932
• Kings saw themselves as successors to King Faisal (of Syria)
• Wanted revenge
• Wanted Iraqui – Hashemite crown.

Iraq wanted to know what went wrong. Tried to calm Arab revolt in 1936, like the Saudis. This was beginning of Arab rivalry.

1935 – Nori al–Said, Iraqui prime minister, 1936 wanted to unite Iraq and mandatory Palestine. That union would eventually include Syria (including Lebanon).

Iraq leaders –

Faysal – died 1933
Ghazi – 1933-39
Regent Abdal-Ilah and Nurial-Said making decisions

1938 – French plan to bring Hashemite King to Syria. Why a king? (Lack of Syrian national feeling on this)

1943-1958 uniting (Iraq) the dominant idea

1943 –

British were against the Syrian Cresent Design. It was clear that the best bet was a fragmented mid-east. Supported Arab league, but Arab league a theatre for Egypt-Saudi/Hashemite Rivalry. But did not want, in 1941, to be seen as supporting fragmentation.

Development of Arab-Nationalism

Yearning for independence from Turks for Muslim-Arab entity. 1920-1945 – Get rid of Western powers (fr-Brit) and remove lines created by West. They succeeded in the former. Emergence of Arab Elites, new breed of nationalism. Each country developed a new, separate identity.

Syria still unsure of their role. 1945/48-1967-

1948 served as a painful remainder that unity not possible. Up to 1967, countries start going after THEIR interests. In 1967, the last united Arab effort.


• Effective Vichy resistance depended on Turkey; afraid of British/Turkish collaboration
• Turks would have occupied North Syria, but only by agreement of both belligerents. Turks didn’t want trouble with Germany.
• Vichy govt. wanted petro, which Germans stored in Turkey. Vichy ended up having to use ocean lanes. Vulnerable to British Air, Naval attack.
• Vichy also requested Berlin’s diplomatic aid with the Turks. Also requested Italy do this. Both turned France down because of competitive intrigue.

German Activities Among Arabs

• German Activity in Syrian Campaign concentrated mainly in Turks, Vichy.
• After fall of Rashid Ali in Iraq, Germans considered using Arabs to sabotage oil lines, pumps. Drawing Arabs into fight against British, Gaullist forces.
• Arab leaders generally antipathetic toward France, distrustful of English. Leaned toward Germans.
• But Vichy, France controlled Syria. Germany, Vichy collaborated. So Germans not popular with Syrian nationalists.
• Shukri Quwatli, nationalist leader in Syria, wanted to use German-supplied weapons against France.
• There were Arab fighters, but they would not cooperate with Vichy as Germans wanted.
• Germany. Complain, Rahn, that Syrians complacent.
• Germany had no intention of challenging France’s designs on Syria and Lebanon.
• Damascus fell to British (after battle) on June 21, 1941.
• The Axis lost Syria, but did not try very hard. Germans were busy in Russia and the Nazi aversion to the French played a role.#

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Photo from Wikipedia of (then) Free French Generals Henri Giraud and Charles de Gaulle with American President FDR and England's Winston Churchill. Casablanca Conference, Jan 14, 1943. The history of France includes battles with terror organizations;

photo of KKK rally in 1923. The American terror organization was targeting not only African-Americans, but women, teachers, Catholics and Jews. The KKK feared societal change and modernity, much like today's terror groups in the Mideast.

Lurene's email in 2014:

APRIL 1990

From: “Right-Wing Terrorism” – Terrorism 71-77

Johann Most

• Born Germany, 1846
• Arrested as radical agitator in Austria
• Later, leading figure of German Social Democrats
• An energetic organizer, good speaker, writer
• Fled Germany, though a member of the Reichstag. Left because of anti-socialist laws.
• 1879, still a Marxist, founded and edited Freiheit in London. A social-democratic weekly.
• Always more radical than the party leadership.
• Had some Russian influences – against Barbarians.
• Later, picked up on Anarchism
• Published Bakunin’s Revolutionary Catechism for German Revolutionaries
• “Long Live Hate! Long Live Vengence! – for all those who bear responsibility for the Servitude, exploitation and Misery of the People
• After hailing the assassination of Alexander II, Most sent to prison by a London Court. Expelled from German Social Democrats.
• Freiheit transferred to the U.S., now the world’s prominent Anarchist mouthpiece to U.S.
• Most did not advocate waiting for the unenlightened masses to revolutionize
• Social Darwinist. Liked Ragnar Redbeard.
• Most took a job in an explosives factory in Jersey City Heights. Invented letter-bomb.
• Believed in writing, propaganda, too.

Marxist Approach
Pg 63-69

Ghandi denounced terrorism in India (Russian inspired). Philosophy of the bomb.

The philosophies of the bomb argued in 1915 that revolution was not complete without terrorism: “…it shatters the spell of the subject race in the eyes of the world…proof of a nation’s hunger for freedom”

Ghandi’s gospel of love would not sway the British Viceroys and Generals. Righteous revenge on the Tyrant.

European/American Terrorism, end of 1800’s
Pg 54-62

• Narodnaya Volya still influenced revolutionaries.

Social Revolutionaries in Russia

Regarded Terrorism as one weapon among several – strengthened other forms of the struggle.

• Also Balkan terrorism – nationalists.
• Armenian Revolutionaries 1880s, 1890s facing hostile Turkish govt and hostile population. Led to Armenian Massacre after terrorist acts by Armenians#

Terrorism of the People’s Will
Pg 30-42


APRIL 26, 1990

The aggrieved right – suffered from leftist aggression

Algerian Secret Army Organization – OAS. Established by French settlers in 1961. → 1954-1962, Algerian Liberation War.

F.L.N. – Algerian National Liberation Front.

Muslims against French (130 year occupation).

OAS – reaction to French grant of independence and Algerian resistance.

OAS not highly ideological. Losers! About to lose Algeria. Some French Generals joined, for French Prestige. Some fascist elements, as France has a long fascist history. 1950’s – over a million settlers, rather aristocratic. “Algeria as French as Paris.”

FLN – Wanted to create support in France. Lost badly, but inflicted great injury on local population, French settlers. Wanted to Assassinate De Gaulle – hero of WWII – ex-General who couldn’t live with politicians. For 12 years, he stepped down in protest of politics, until 1958.

→ 1958, “legal coup de etat”. Nat. Assembly voted on his return. Victory for the right.

→ Settlers thought their future secure, but De Gualle wanted to dump expensive Algeria. Army pissed off. 31 attempts on his life, out of pure vengeance.

Massive terror against France in Algeria, Europe. OAS obliterated after Algerian independence.


Ku Klux Klan – founded June, 1866 in Tennessee. Not originally violent or terroristic. Reaction to Civil War. “Preserve the old values of the South.” Social gathering more than anything else, originally. “Magic” Symbols.

→ Imperial Wizard the head, supposed to be patriotic, protect the constitution → in favor of white dominance, however →

But reconstruction legislation transformed KKK into violent defence organization. July 1866 reconstruction laws?

→ Carpetbaggers, black vote influenced KKK → 1868, KKK turned to violence → Spread over deep south, general south → scare blacks from participation, and white sympathizers → 1,000 people killed in 1868 elections → special hostility toward women, teachers →

12 masked Klansmen would go for raid → Many thousands blacks and whites beaten, raped, forced out of homes, killed →

→ Very successful terror campaign → by 1870s they started disbanding because they reached goals → For 100 years, blacks did not register to vote

→ 1915, Second Klan created by Simmons, his father a Klansman in Alabama → First a fraternity, attracting middle-class, racist, believed in superiority of whites, “100% Americanism” → 1917 WWI began, nationalist, chauvinist element, identified with anti-immigration, anti-women, etc.

→ Simons recruited Journalist Clark, and Bessie Tyler → made Klan the Civil guard of South, Spoke about prohibition, morality → membership: 100,000 in Summer of 1921.

→ 1921, NEW YORK WORLD published series of articles, press campaign started → 1923, 2-3 million members → poor, underclassed Joined →

After War, economic crisis, Black unrest → classical situation for fascism →

→ KKK relied on local office holders → many democrats → Klan decentralized, lost touch with democracy. → so many Terrorist acts. Brutal. Another decline in 1925 → Fortunately, before crash of 1929, 1930s → all that remained was local, ineffective chapters

Again revived after WWII → In late 50s, early 60s → during Civil rights movement →

→ Today, Klan does not control radical right → many KKK-like organizations now → has spread East → (the burning cross, protestant, was symbol of true principal of religion) →

No KKK literature, but leaflets → “Klan Craft” – booklet, protestant oriented, against Catholics and catholic immigrants → Pope seen as wanting to take over U.S. →

→ KKK has fear of modernity→ immoral women, etc. → urban life→ Anti-Semitic as well →

KKK not a classical terror organization → Not an underground→ many useless ceremonies →

Terrorism of the right → poor people, part-time (unlike leftist Zealots) → Underground movements can not last so long as part-time movements →

Kahane rightist terrorism → Arayan Nation biggest in U.S. now, extreme right → have a sophisticated computer network to keep track of enemies – Jews, leftists, etc. → Survivalists, etc Viet War Vets → Animosity toward legal system →

The Order in Idaho → wiped out Jewish disc-Jockey →

ZOG – Zionist Occupied Govt. → concept of rightists/radicalists →

No international threat from right, like left → no state support →

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MAY 1990

Notes on assigned essay reading: author, Francis Fukuyama, journal, The National Interest, Summer 1989, Fukuyama’s essay title, “The End of History?” 

Lurene's email in 2014:
This essay was thrilling for me as assigned reading in Jerusalem. The Berlin Wall was suddenly history, and college students everywhere looked in amazement at the new Europe. In 2010, people often consider this essay by Fukuyama as wrong, over-idealistic or smug. I differ. I think, yes, he might have been optimistic, but he was correct in several respects. That is, I honestly believe forms of government which ignore a population's need for freedom of thought and open speech are doomed. Liberal democracy is essential. Over and over through history, we've seen that authoritarian regimes can't encourage such freedoms.

Q: What is the main thrust of the article concerning political ideologies? Why does he claim that ideas have reached a point of culmination?

• The Century is moving to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism.

• The triumph of the Western idea is evident in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives.

• What we may be witnessing is the end point of ideological evolution – liberal democracy as the final form of human govt.

• Still incomplete in the real or material world, but the victory of ideas has occurred in the REALM OF IDEAS and consciousness.

• The concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, middle, end borrowed by Marx from Hegel.

• Hegel said mankind a product of concrete historical, social environment. Man not a collection of fixed “natural” attributes.

• Hegel’s ideas were used by Marx. Kojeve’s work.

• Two world wars and related upheavals had the effect of extending these principals spatially.

• What remains is primarily economic activity, Kojeve’s theories said.

• The contradictions that drive history to exist are:

 in the realm of human ideas.
 can include religion, culture and the complex of moral values.
 Rooted in a prior state of consciousness, which creates the material world in its own image

• Not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed.

• Failure to understand that roots of economic behavior lie in realm of consciousness and culture lead to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are ideal in nature.

• The material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness.

• The Central issue is the fact that the people’s republic of China…not a beacon for illiberal forces.

• At the end of history it’s not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they quit pretensions of representing higher forms of human society.

• Two challenges to liberalism-left: Religion and nationalism.

• Organized religious impulses, other than Islam, can be satisfied in a liberal-democratic context.


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